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实验心理学-给力心理
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实验心理学

实验心理学
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发表时间:2015-02-04 16:39:48 273 0 0

实验心理学将心理学作为一门自然科学处理,假定它可以采用实验方法。该分支更注重的是研究方法。实验心理学的建立使心理学摆脱了哲学心理学的阶段,进入了科学心理学的阶段。

历史

1879年,冯特在莱比锡建立第一个实验心理学实验室,这被心理学教科书认为是科学心理学诞生的标志。早期的实验心理学研究集中在感觉和知觉方面。其中费希纳创立了心理物理学和提出了费希纳定律,恩斯特·韦伯(Ernst Weber)发现了韦伯定律。早期的实验心理学家只注重对知觉的研究,对用实验研究一些高级心理过程记忆、思维表示怀疑。而1879年艾宾浩斯开始的对记忆的开拓性研究(1885年出版了《论记忆》这部重要著作)推翻了这一论断。实验心理学由此开始了对人的高级心理活动的深入研究.

流派

最早的实验心理学家(如艾宾浩斯和铁钦纳)注重思辨,采用内省、推理和知觉等方法。早期20世纪上半叶的心理学流派,实验心理学与行为主义紧密联系,特别在美国,导致忽视了精神现象,在欧洲包括英国,行为主义影响较小,在如Frederic Bartlett爵士、Kenneth Craik、W. E. Hick和布罗德本特(Donald Broadbent)等心理学家的影响之下,实验心理学家关心诸如思维、记忆和注意的话题,带来随后认知心理学的发展。

展望

随着20世纪下半叶心理学研究领域的扩展,实验心理学所覆盖的领域延伸到社会心理学、发展心理学、人机工程学等多个领域。其中认知心理学和生理心理学的实验研究成为主流。自1980年代开始,两个领域开始综合,形成一门新兴的重要学科——认知神经科学。该学科把心理和大脑的统一理解作为自己的目标。

实验心理学已经融入了当今的大多数心理学研究中。实验作为一种重要的研究方法而被广泛强调。实验方法又分为实验室实验和现场实验。现场实验在更为自然的环境下进行,对无关条件的控制没有实验室实验严格,但现场实验较实验室实验更接近真实的状况。

 

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本文作者

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长程个案

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续单率

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