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异常心理学-给力心理
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异常心理学

异常心理学
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发表时间:2015-02-04 16:15:12 222 0 0

异常心理学又称变态心理学,是临床心理学的一个分支,针对各种心理疾病或异常行为描述其病理学及治疗方法,为更深入了解异常行为的入门学科,也是成为心理治疗师训练的必修知识之一。

从古至今,对未深入研究“变态”的一般人而言,“变态”往往代表着:与自己和周遭人的行为模式、思考模式或情绪反应模式极不相同,因为罕见而对现象不了解,因为不了解而恐惧,因为恐惧而试图逃避、排斥或强使对方改变成跟大多数人一样。

在过去,人们基本上以魔鬼论来解释变态心理。

在当代,变态心理学被分成心理异常和行为异常,这显示了哲学上关于身心问题和精神障碍分类的不同方法的双重性。“变态”有3个类别:低能,高才和天才。异常心理学的研究主要将人类心理和行为分为两种:适应和不适应的。“不适应”代表有问题存在,也代表着个人的脆弱和不易融入环境,而造成生活中各种他人不常发生的问题。变态心理学中“不适应”的定义是脱离常规,与大部分分人的行为,认知,和感受背道而驰。而临床(治疗)理论则因不同学派而有所异同。有很长一段时间,人们运用统计、道德或其它途径,试图了解和控制被视为异常的行为。异常心理学研究不同条件下的多种原因,采用不同的理论从心理和其他一般领域来决定“变态”的定义。历来对于这个定义有一个心理和生理解释之间的鸿沟,反映了哲学二元论的身心问题以及不同的精神障碍分类方法。

根据美国精神医学学会出版的《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》,精神疾病是指一个人患有行为上或心理上的临床病征,而病征必须具备以下其中一项条件:

·         为精神病人个人带来痛苦

·         降低精神病人个人能力

·         有带来死亡、痛楚、丧失能力或丧失自由的危害性

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本文作者

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收费助人

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长程个案

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续单率

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