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人格心理学-给力心理
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人格心理学

人格心理学
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发表时间:2015-02-04 16:48:34 326 0 0

人格心理学为心理学的分支之一,可简单定义为研究一个人所持有的行为模式的心理学。

“Personality”一般都会被译作“性格”,心理学学界则把它译为“人格”。“人格”不单包括性格,还包括信念、自我观念等等。准确来说,“人格”是指一个人一致的行为特征的群集。人格的组成特征因人而异,因此每个人都有其独特性。这种独特性致使每个人面对同一情况下都可能有不同反应。人格心理学家会研究人格的构成特征及其形成,从而预计它对塑造人类行为和人生大事的影响。

理论

人格的形成受到不同因素的影响,因而发展出不同的分析理论,包括心理精神分析论、社会认知论、人本主义及生物学派等。

精神分析论

根据心理动力学(en:Psychodynamics),精神分析学家弗洛伊德指出人格可分成三个层次,即意识,前意识及潜意识,他并提出人格结构中的本我、自我和超我来解释以上三个层次。

社会认知论

社会认知论(Social Cognitive theory)的提出者是心理学家班杜拉,他指出人的行为不但受个人控制,亦受环境和外在社会因素影响,即“相互决定论”。他提出个人自我效能(en:Self-efficacy)的高低会影响他适应生活及克服障碍的能力,而根据社会学习理论,个人的观察学习能力亦对性格形成和发展有所影响。

人本主义观点

以马斯洛为首的人本主义认为个人有五种天生的需求层次,而满足这些需求的行为就是从学习得来的。人格受先天、后天学习、遗传等各种因素互相影响。

生物学观点

生物学派(Biological)认为人格的特质会透过遗传影响子女,亦关乎脑袋的生理构造,并非只受个人经验影响。心理学家艾森克认为人格可分为三大维度,即外向与内向、神经质倾向(Neuroricism)和精神症状倾向(Psychoticism)。

人格特征论

人格特征 (trait) 可解作特定的人格元素,用以描述一个人的感觉、思考及表现方式。人格特征可从行为中推论出来,具有相当的统合性与持久性。从古至今,心理学家对于人格分类都有着不同的见解,而近期一些心理学家们就组织了一套广泛被使用的人格大五模型 (“Big Five” model)。此模型列出了五种普遍的人格特征,包括外向性(extraversion)、神经质(neuroticism)、和善性(agreeableness)、严谨自律性(conscientiousness) ,和开放性(openness to experience)。

人格大五模型

外向性

神经质

和善性

严谨自律性

开放性

 

和人格五大模型有关的特定特征

爱交朋友、亲切

焦虑、感情脆弱

信任、温厚的

自律、有组织的

丰富想象力、创意

 
 

这五大特征都会受遗传影响,也受不同文化影响从而提高个人适应能力。

测验

人格特征可以从人格心理测验(personality test)中推断出来。这种测验是对个人行为样本的一种客观化和标准化的测量工具,可分为客观与主观两大类。objective test会以特定的问卷形式进行,而近期较为普及的有明尼苏达多项人格问卷 ,创立于1942年,并且在1989年发行修订版(MMPI-2),以18岁或以上的成年人为对像。而projective test就以动力心理学为基础,用抽象的方式去推测人的潜意识思想,例如Rorschach Inkblot test和Thematic Apperception Test(TAT),两者都被广泛用于人格研究中。

 

 

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本文作者

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公益助人

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长程个案

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续单率

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