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生物心理学-给力心理
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生物心理学

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发表时间:2015-02-04 16:18:43 238 0 0

在心理学中,生物心理学或心理生物学[1]是运用生物学原则以研究心理历程及行为。举例来说,心理生物学家会比较雏鹅的铭印行为与人类婴儿的依附行为,并以这两个现象来建立他们的理论。生物心理学家通常对衡量生物学上的变量有兴趣,例如:解剖学、生理学或基因变量,并试图量化或质化心理学或行为学上的变量,因此对实证应用具有重大贡献。

术语

心理生物学,研究心理功能及行为与生物程序的关系。

心理生物学家,研究精神生物学的人。

生物心理学的,表示属于或附属于精神生物学的学科。

历史

生物心理学的起源可以追溯到1951年,英国发展心理学家约翰·鲍比试图应用西格蒙德·弗洛伊德在心理学及心理动力学的理论于父母婴儿的问题,在关键阶段时偶然地经由朱利安·赫胥黎的介绍接触了康拉德·洛伦兹及尼可拉斯·庭伯根新出版的作品,特别是心理印痕以及行为与发展的四个问题。

1969年,在他的依附,第一卷中,鲍比阐述了他的新理论 - 依附理论,此理论是一种心理生物过程,描述其他物种处在类似人类的环境中的反应。此外,“人类并非猴子或白老鼠,遑论金丝雀或慈鲷”,但“假设我们没有共同的行为特征,那就更奇怪了。”他接着推论:我们在婴儿发展时期应能找到一些生物心理特征。他问:“是否某些源自幼年的神经倾向或人格偏差是因为生物心理过程的发展中受到了干扰?”而且,“无论答案为何,这只是探究可能性的常识”。但出于谨慎,他声明:“直到人类的行为在使用动物行为学的概念进行试验前,我们无法知道生物心理学的重要性。”

心理学及生物学相关领域

在许多案例中,人类会被当作生物心理学的研究对象,但非人类的物种的生物心理学实验文献才是大宗,通常是老鼠或猴子。由此生物心理学建立了一个重要的假设:生物在生物学及行为上具有足够的相似性来进行跨物种的推论。这使得生物心理学与比较心理学、演化心理学及演化生物学结成了同盟。由于神经心理学是研究人类行为与神经障碍的关系(也就是非实验性的生物操作),因此生物心理学亦与神经心理学有着范例和方法上的相似性。

生物心理学(Biological Psychology)的同义字包含生物心理学(Biopsychology)、行为神经科学及精神生物学 [3]. 生理心理学 则是另一个常用的同义字,但有些作者会将生理心理学视为生物心理学的一个子领域。

研究方法

生物心理学实验的特征是:使用属于生物学范畴的自变量或是因变量进行实验。也就是说,永久或暂时地改变被研究的生物的神经系统,或测量神经系统的某些状态。(通常会与行为变量相关)。通常这些操作或量测会与非人类的主题相关。

降低或无效化神经功能
损坏组织 - 触发特定脑部区域的古典方法。感谢提供脑的3D立体定位坐标区域图的各类'先烈',使我们可以精确的在脑部制造损坏区。

·         电解损坏 - 借由电流流通损毁神经组织。

·         化学损坏 - 注入神经毒素损毁神经组织。

·         暂时损坏 - 冷却或使用河豚毒素等麻醉剂使神经组织暂时无效化。

·         穿颅磁刺激 - 用在人类身上的新技术,在头皮上放置磁性线圈,对外皮神经元施放磁性脉冲,引发人类神经线路的微量电流。

·         心理药理学 - 使用化学拮抗剂,经由干扰神经传导引发神经活动。拮抗剂可由人体系统传递(例如静脉注射)或是经由外科手术(脑内)。

增强神经功能

·         电刺激 - 使用低电流提高神经活动的古典方法(不至于造成细胞明显损伤的低电流).

·         心理药理学 - 使用化学拮抗剂增强或取代原生的神经传递介质以增加神经活动。拮抗剂可由人体系统传递(例如静脉注射)或是经由外科手术(脑内)。

·         穿颅磁刺激

计量神经活动

·         单一神经元纪录 - 使用电极测量单一神经元的电流活动。

·         多电极记录 - 使用电极束记录数百个神经元同时的活动。

·         功能性磁振造影 - 经常使用在人类身上的技术,使用此技术可侦测大脑血液流动的变化,并显示大脑区域的相关活动(i.e.,几十万个神经元组合).

·         脑电图;从事件相关脑电位(ERPs)衍生出的技术,经由头皮量测电极监测大脑皮层的神经元活动。(通常用在与人类相关的科目上)。

·         神经解剖学

遗传学操作

·         数量性状基因座定位 - 基因的影响可使用统计方法,由研究某些物种的近亲繁殖世系(通常是老鼠)来推论。近来,许多物种的基因定序,特别是老鼠的基因定序,使得这项技术更加便利。

·         选育

·         基因工程 - 实验性操作基因组;例如,让基因剔除小鼠缺少某个特定基因

生物心理学主题范围

生物心理学家研究的议题与理论心理学家大致上大同小异,但限于在非人类的物种上。以结果来说,大量的生物心理学文献是关于哺乳类的共同精神活动及行为,例如:

·         感觉与知觉

·         动机性行为(饥饿、口渴、性)

·         动作控制

·         学习及记忆

·         睡眠及生物周期

·         感情

然而,随着技术的进步以及使用在人类研究的非侵入性方法更加精确时,生物心理学家在某些古典科目上开始有了贡献,例如:

·         语言

·         理性与决策

·         意识

生物心理学亦在精神障碍方面有长期的贡献,含括属于临床心理学及精神病理学的范围。虽然并非所有的精神疾病均可从动物研究模式得到,这个领域仍提供重要的治疗资料,包括:

·         帕金森氏症

·         杭丁顿氏舞蹈症

·         阿兹海默症

·         忧郁症

·         精神分裂症

·         自闭症

·         焦虑症

·         滥用药物,包括 酗酒

 

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本文作者

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