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认知心理学-给力心理
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认知心理学

认知心理学
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发表时间:2015-02-04 16:22:33 178 0 0

认知心理学是最新的心理学分支之一,从1950年代至1960年代间才发展出来的。1956年被认为是认知心理学史上的重要年份。这一年几项心理学研究都体现了心理学的信息加工观点。如Chomsky的语言理论和Newell和Simon的“通用问题解决者”模型。“认知心理学”第一次在出版物出现是在1967年Ulrich Neisser的新书。而唐纳德·布罗德本特于1958年出版的《知觉与传播》一书则为认知心理学取向立下了重要基础。此后,认知心理取向的重点便在唐纳德·布罗德本特所指出的认知的讯息处理模式--一种以心智处理来思考与推理的模式。因此,思考与推理在人类大脑中的运作便像电脑软件在电脑里运作相似。认知心理学理论时常谈到输入、表征、计算或处理,以及输出等概念。

这种理解心智运作的方式在过去数十年变得非常普遍。这些比喻常见于社会心理学、人格心理学、变态心理学和发展心理学中。认知理论的应用在最近并广及许多动物认知研究的比较心理学领域。

信息处理的认知功能取向最近正被一些心理学新的研究取向所质疑,例如动力系统取向以及哲学中心体合一之观点。

由于电脑的隐喻和使用,认知心理学在1960年至1970年间得到许多人工智能及其它相关领域研究成果的助益。事实上,它已发展成为一个跨领域的认知科学,此学门整合了一系列不同取向关于心灵与心智处理的研究。

认知心理学与从前心理研究取向有不同之处。认知心理学使用系统化的科学方法,拒绝接受内省的研究方式,与弗洛依德心理学的现象学研究方法不同。且认知心理学认定内在心理状态的存在(如信仰、欲望和动机),与行为主义心理学不同。

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本文作者

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长程个案

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续单率

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