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如何面对爱人的坏情绪?-给力心理
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如何面对爱人的坏情绪?

如何面对爱人的坏情绪?
个人原创

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发表时间:2015-06-18 21:10:50 378 0 0

当你为家人准备晚餐,经过一两个小时的忙碌,一切就绪,爱人却带着一脸的沮丧推开家门;当你下班后开心而着急地赶往和爱人约好的商场,但在门口见到他时,他却烦不可耐地质问“你怎么才来?”

面对这些情绪冲击时,你会如何化解自己的情绪、如何帮助对方、帮助彼此走出负向的情绪互动呢?

深层心理学有一个说法:潜意识中,伴侣需要用来处理负性的情感体验。这句话可以从两方面理解:

一方面,是自己潜在地寻找一个可以承载自己对于家庭的渴望与理解的“理想对象”,他/她甚至某些层面会像自己的父母,或者原来家庭中的某个成员。但是在新的亲密关系里,肯定有一些特别的地方,是自己很不满意的、渴望对方去改变的。借着排斥对方的某些性格特质、生活习惯,试图让自己不再感到曾经在原生的家庭里难以承受的感觉。

另一个方面,成为对方的伴侣和爱人,某个层面就在扮演对方情绪的蓄水池的角色。对方情绪太汹涌了,就需要为对方暂时“蓄水”,而对方情绪麻木、没有新鲜感时,又需要为对方注入“活水”,让彼此互动起来。这种角色成为一种使命、一种重要性的体现。

这样来看,两种状态都不那么轻松,那么当对方或彼此的互动处于情绪糟糕的情况下,其中情绪的承担者应该注意些什么,能够实现情绪的调节、达成负性情绪体验的代谢呢?

英国的心理学家温尼科特提出一个理论:在人际互动中构建“抱持性环境”,有助于心灵的疗愈和成长。大意是,当一个处于情感受挫、需要帮助的人如果能遇到情感的支持、理解,对于这个暂时“孩子气”的人去发泄情绪、调节人际关系的尝试,能给予宽容和关怀,那么这个人会通过一段时间的调整,会从焦虑、抑郁以及愤怒中走出来,而且心灵会因为这种环境的照顾而获得成长。这个环境就称为抱持性环境。

温尼科特的这个观点被广泛地应用于心理咨询、儿童教育、医疗,乃至商业协商等领域。因为从实践中大家发现,抱持性的环境的实施并不需要高昂的建设费用、不需要特别复杂的受训背景。那么如果应用到家庭里,在亲密关系中又需要做到什么,才能具备“抱持”的特点、成为抱持性环境呢?

第一、不否认、不拒绝对方当下的情绪

以开头为例,虽然你在家很辛苦的准备了晚餐,但是爱人情绪确实正处于低落的状态,那么,不要否认他/她的情绪“没什么”、“过会儿就好了”,也不要责怪对方“有”当下的情绪。试着理解对方真实地处于一种不太舒服的情绪中,去关注到他/她当下的情绪体验,去接纳这种情绪的存在。试着去询问:“看起来,你有些情绪不好,是不是愿意和我谈一谈呢?”

第二、不要主观推断和妄想,而试着去问一问真实的情况

“他肯定是在单位被领导骂了,要拿我撒气;或者嫌我昨晚没有给他手机充好电,借题发挥呢;或者惩罚我今早出门前收拾东西动作慢,让他着急忙慌地往单位赶……”。当我们处于这种主观想象和心理的封闭状态时,很难看到对方真实的感受与状态。最好的办法,是温和地问问:“刚才等着急了?怎么好像带着情绪呢?”也许这的确有些难——面对对方给予的情绪压力,还要放下自己,而先关注对方——但是,蓄水池,就是需要暂时地承担一下对方汹涌而来的情绪。而一旦他的情绪平静下来,对方会心存感激,彼此关系也会增进、关系的耐受性也会提高。

第三、耐心的倾听与情感的关注

在自己能放下想象,而关注于对方的真实后,对方往往会有故事要讲,这时,耐心听着就好。然后把听到的情感,反馈给他,也许那正是他缺少理解和关注的,因为他是“当局者迷”。比如他会说:“这个月业绩不好,而且不是我不好,是小组的不好,所以我是被牵连者,这个恼人的业绩考核方式,团队能达到时,大家都开心;可是我个人做得足够好,反因为他人的情况而拖累时,真是别扭……”。尽量不打断他,即使他说的极端、偏颇,乃至不很理性都不要紧,最关键是他要讲一讲受挫的感受,而你的陪伴是一种巨大的安慰与关怀。等他讲完,可以试着简短地反馈他的情绪,“听起来,你自己能达到目标,本来是很值得开心的,但是因为所在小组其他成员的问题,影响到了你,所以你很失望、还有一些责怪他们。因为好的时候看不出来,出现问题时,你是无辜的受害者。这让你很不舒服。现在跟我说说,有没有感觉好一些了?”

第四、为对方的体验增加正向的解读

当对方的情绪得到照顾,逐渐恢复平静时,如果你能发现他“钻牛角尖”的思路、想法,而且你能提供更建设性的理解,可以尝试告诉他,毕竟你“旁观者清”。比如“我觉得你既然自己可以达标,试着把自己的经验分享出去,让大家和你一起优秀,要比你这样责怪他们更能解决问题,毕竟你们之前团队合作还是挺好的。也许是最近的工作中,他们需要一些帮助呢?也许大家这时候也挺不好意思的,牵连了你,你要是能挺身而出,大度一些,也许以后就再不发生,也算亡羊补牢了。兴许大家因此而更欣赏你的组织能力、专业能力”。在每一个情绪背后,都会有个人乃至团队的意义,有时候,情绪体验过于痛苦,让当事人难以承受,所以暂时看不到、看不清楚。

第五、当对于总在重复体验一些情结时,建议他接受专业咨询帮助

“情结”是心理学家荣格总结出来的概念,意思是,每个人都有一些固定或者容易发展的倾向,即使与现实发生冲突,也很不容易调整,或者很难从自我反思中走出来。但是,这种情结与现实的不协调往往造成持久的痛苦与矛盾体验。假如你的爱人总在重复体验着某项情绪,难以有效地调节,可以推荐他接受专业的心理咨询。当然首选注重内心体验的精神分析取向咨询。

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本文作者

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公益助人

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收费助人

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长程个案

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续单率

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咨询时
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