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了解孤独症-给力心理
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了解孤独症

了解孤独症
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发表时间:2015-02-09 14:45:50 273 0 0

孤独症又译为自闭症,其典型特征是社会交往以及沟通上显著受损,行为和兴趣显著局限性。孤独症的孩子又被称为“星星的孩子”,而他的成因却没有一个肯定的结论,简单来说包括生物因素、家庭及环境、心理因素组成。

    孤独症的症状表现出主要在以下几个方面:

 

    1、 社会功能方面

     孤独症儿童缺乏与他人的人际互动,他们逃避与人的接触,在幼儿期就已经显现出对人的冷漠与疏远。特别逃避与人的目光接触,如果面对其他人,患儿可能会将自己的头扭向其他方向,以避免目光的对视。回避与人的身体接触,不但不会像一般儿童那样张开双臂期待他人搂抱,反而会在被其母亲或他人抱着时,将身体扭向远离成人身体的方向或保持僵硬的姿势。稍大一些,他们会独自玩耍,不会寻求父母或成人的注意或安慰。这类儿童还缺乏相应的面部表情,常显得表情漠然,很少用点头、摇头、摆手等以表示其意愿,对他人的言语或表情交流反应冷淡,因此不能与他人建立人际关系。

 

    2、 言语和口头表达式方面

    约一半的孤独症儿童缺乏言语发展能力,尽管他们到了应该具备语言能力的年龄,却只能用简单的词语与他人交流,并常以哭或尖叫表示他们的不舒适或需要。稍大的患儿可能会拉着大人的手走向他们想要的东西。另外他们有一些特殊的异常表达方式,如使用重复性模仿语言,例如,问患儿:“你想吃什么?”他会重要:“你想吃什么?”以鹦鹉学舌的方式重复自己刚刚听到的话,而常常不会回答自己所希望要的东西。他们因此无法正常地与他人交流,也无法向其他儿童那样正常地学习。在孤独症儿童处于陌生环境或遇到困境时,这种重复言语会更多频繁地发生。

    有些孤独症儿童即使能够进行一些交流,但往往对于人称代词难以理解和学习,例如“我”与“你”不分,当某个患儿想吃东西吃,可能会说:“你能吃个桃子吗?”

    此外,孤独症儿童对于言语的综合理解能力差,只会从字面理解话语的含义。他们难

以适应正常的交流和会谈方式,其说话的语音和语调以及节奏也比较怪异。这些方语和交流方式严重影响了他们与他人交流和发展关系的能力。

 

    3、 行为方面

    孤独症儿童常常用表现出坐不住,动不停,常用脚尖走路或以跑代走,东张西望,眼神飘忽。还常伸颈,装腔作势,做出怪异姿势,有的儿童还莫名其妙地大叫,发脾气,哭或笑。

    患病儿童常常出现仪式化行为或刻板行为。例如在玩耍中,他们会不厌其烦地把一些物品按某种固定的顺序排列,如果有人打乱其顺序或不让其排列,就会大发脾气。又如,儿童可能迷恋于某个特定的物品,可能是特定的玩具,无论走到什么地方都要带着,这个物品被拿走或丢失时会表现极度不安。此外,生活按一定的模式行事,不能改变。例如,吃饭要坐固定的座位,晚上睡觉前鞋子要按照固定的方式摆放,不然不肯睡觉等。

    孤独症儿童还表现出某些怪异的自我刺激行为,例如身体按照一定的节奏摇摆或原地转圈,或在床上乱蹭。他们可能还会有自我伤害的行为,例如打自己的身体或反复用头撞墙。

 

    4、 智力和认知方面

    虽然孤独症患者在早期的时候能拥有正常的智力,但由于他们的病症使他们未能接受正常的教育,所以他们的智力水平通常比正常儿童显著较低。事实上,很难对孤独症儿童的智力进行评价,因为他们的异常行为会干扰智力测验的进行,同时他们的言语能力受损,在与言语和抽象思维及逻辑相关的测验方面表现差;但操作能力和机械记忆方面又表现优秀。

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本文作者

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