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小学生恐惧情绪问题咨询案例-给力心理
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小学生恐惧情绪问题咨询案例

小学生恐惧情绪问题咨询案例
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发表时间:2015-02-09 13:14:27 214 0 0

[基本情况]

莹莹是一名四年级的小学生。每天天一黑,她就不敢出门,甚至一个人独处的时候,心里也会无缘无故产生一种害怕和恐惧。为什么莹莹一到天黑就不敢出门呢?在莹莹四岁的时候,妈妈就对她开始了早期教育。先是拉小提琴,后是学画画,念英语,算算术,尽管莹莹能断断续续地拉完《我爱北京天安门》,但她乐感不强,看不出她有学音乐的天赋。莹莹每天晚上练琴就像受刑似的,因为如果达不到要求,妈妈就要打她的手掌,或者关在一间黑屋子里。每当这个时候,妈妈就凶巴巴地说:“练不好琴,我就不要你了,让狼吃了你。”或者是说:“等天黑让鬼把你带走。”吓得莹莹拼命哭喊。所以现在,莹莹一到天黑就不敢出门。

[分析]

像莹莹的这种反应就属于典型的恐惧情绪反应。有的人特别怕小动物,如小老鼠、小狗、小兔;有的人走在路上害怕汽车;有的人怕上高一点儿的楼梯;有很多人害怕见到生人或客人等。在这些害怕心理中,有些属于正常现象,如人一般都有点儿怯生,见到陌生人都会有点儿害怕;有些则不正常,如怕上楼梯,怕看见汽车等。恐惧是人类和动物共有的一种原始情绪之一,它是指个体在面临并企图摆脱某种危险情境而又觉得无能力摆脱时产生的情绪体验,恐惧发生时常有缩回或退避的动作并伴有异常激动的表现和生理反应,如心跳加快、毛发竖立、惊叫并有奇怪的面部表情等。引起恐惧的因素是多方面的,如熟悉的环境发生了意想不到的变化,奇怪、陌生、可怕的事情突然发生,黑暗、巨响、坏人、失去平衡及被其他人的恐惧情绪感染等。

[方法]

1.转移刺激法。把引起恐惧的刺激物暂时移开虽然不能消除对刺激物的恐惧,但能消除惧怕心理。例如,小学生看见狗就惧怕,不让他看见狗,就消除了对狗的惧怕。可是他以后再看到狗,仍然会和从前一样怕狗。所以,这种方法控制恐惧是不理想的。

2.系统脱敏法。心理学研究发现,人的心理反应有一种习惯化倾向,习惯化指每当某个新异刺激出现时,就容易引起人的心理反应,但当这种刺激不断重复出现时,人对它的反应性逐渐下降,直到最后不再对此反应,就好像产生了一种习惯似的。因此,不断地重复做某一件事,就可以对这事产生习惯化的反应,从而降低人的反应性。同样,如果让人反复接受恐惧刺激物的刺激,使其逐渐适应这种刺激物,习惯成自然了,便不再害怕这种刺激物。例如一个恐惧考试的学生,只有不断地参加考试,才会消除这种恐惧。当然,反复练习的开始要注意降低难度。例如,为了消除对高度的恐惧,开始时只要求登上三个台阶,以后才逐渐向1米、10米、20米或更高的高度攀登。

3.掌握知识法。恐惧的产生大多是因缺乏科学知识而胡思乱想造成的。有位科学家说过,愚笨和不安定产生恐惧,知识和保障却拒绝恐惧。有的学生怕黑,一到黑天就担心会不会出现妖怪或魔鬼之类,当他知道所谓的妖魔鬼怪之类不过是人们虚构的,他就不会再有这种恐惧的情绪了。

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本文作者

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长程个案

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续单率

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