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辅导心理学-给力心理
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辅导心理学

辅导心理学
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发表时间:2015-02-05 09:26:24 270 0 0

辅导或辅导心理学,是指应用精神健康、心理学或人类发展的理论和原则等,透过认知、情感、行为或系统性的介入方式,(对事主)提出并强调个人价值、个人成长、事业发展以及心理疾病。

心理分析学派辅导理论

心理分析治疗法源于佛洛依德和荣格等的心理分析理论,重点是指出人格由本我、自我和超我组成,令人们了解人的行为会被无意识的因素控制;而童年经验亦对将来成长有深远影响;此学派亦提出人会利用各种防卫机制去处理焦虑;透过移情作用,辅导员有机会了解对象的人际关系。

人本主义学派辅导理论

主条目:个人中心治疗

根据人本主义学派,辅导的基要条件是真诚、尊重与同理心。根据罗哲斯的人本主义辅导理论,辅导员如能本着真诚、尊重与同理心的态度去帮助当事人,当事人将产生建设性的性格及行为改变。罗哲斯所谓的真诚(Genuineness)是辅导员以表里一致的自己和当事人相处,无条件尊重(Unconditional Positive Regards)是对当事人无任何要求的心态下向对方表示温情的接纳,同理心(Empathy)是设身处地的从当事人的参照标准去看和感受事物。

当中常包括以下基本概念:

1.   个体具有自由意志:个体有选择的自由,也相同需要为选择的结果负责。

2.   尊重个人价值:个人都有其存在的价值,且个体的主观经验应被尊重。

3.   朝向自我成长的方向,最后完成自我实现

4.   相信人基本上是向善、向上的(性善说):人不是被本能所驱使而是能自我选择朝向自我实现的目标迈进。

格式塔学派辅导理论

主条目:格式塔学派

格式塔疗法(完形治疗法)采用如对话演习、双椅技术、责任心训练、梦的分析等许多具体技术,这些技术用以强化来访者的直接经验,即“此时此地”经验,促进情感释放,提高来访者的意识性,使他们了解自己所运用的心理防御机制。依照皮尔斯的看法,悔恨是未完成事件中最常见、最恶劣的一种。当人们悔恨时就把自己给困住了。 完形治疗法能实际的增进人的直接体验,而非仅抽象的谈论情境,该治疗法是体验性的。

理性情绪行为治疗法辅导理论

理性情绪治疗基于一个假设,即人生而同时具有理性的,正确的思考及非理性的、扭曲思考的潜能。建基于这个假设,REBT独创了A-B-C理论:A代表触发的事件;B代表信念;C代表情绪结果或行为效果。A-B-C理论的观点在于表示,事件不会直接导致行为效果,而是事件A透过思考历程、个人看法作用于B,才导致情绪或行为反应 。例如绝大部分学生会在获知考第二时感到快乐。但曾有个案中学生因而感到不快。其实考第二不会直接使学生感到不快乐,而是考第二,再透过“我必须考第一”这个不理性信念,令自己有不快乐的感觉。艾里士认为要减轻或去除不良的情绪结果,必须对B加以驳斥,才能发挥咨商与治疗的效果(E),有了效果即表示当事人有新的感觉(F)。艾里士认为多数的人都认为触发的事件(A)是情绪结果(C)的直接原因,他不同意,认为“思想”才是个人情绪的直接因素,所以信念(B)才是辅导的重点,所以REBT主要的治疗方法是教导和辩驳。

学校训导及辅导工作比较

训导工作(较以教师为中心)

工作目标:以抑制违规行为为主;以全校利益为首、维持良好校风校誉;促使个人适应群体;

对象/焦点:整体学生;外表的统一;处理人性的阴暗面;

教师风格::严格、监管、约束;重视原则、公平;多批评、责备;处事较重理性。

辅导工作(较以学生为中心)

工作目标:以疏导违规行为、发展学生优点为主;重视和谐的师生关系及学生的愉快成长;重视个人各方面的成长;

对象/焦点:个别学生;内在的动力;处理人性的积极一面;

教师风格:处事有弹性、启发学生;重视个别学生心理需要;多聆听、建议;处事较重感性。

学校辅导策略
初级预防⇒主动了解学生,改善教育环境。

二级预防⇒尚未发生问题前,对学生进行咨商。

三级预防⇒诊断与治疗,已经发生问题的学生,做诊断治疗。

 

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本文作者

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长程个案

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续单率

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