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如何克服儿童学习障碍-给力心理
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如何克服儿童学习障碍

如何克服儿童学习障碍
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发表时间:2015-04-14 09:54:00 282 0 0

 现代的独生子女起来越多地出现了学习困难,许多家长抱怨自己的孩子学习不专心,没兴趣,学习态度不佳,并经常说,孩子就是存心不爱学习,贪玩。其实,这是一种误解。现代教育心理学把这类孩子的现状称为学习能力障碍。

 

    什么是学习障碍?

    很多家长没有意识到自己孩子学习成绩不好,不是“贪玩”、“不用功”、“不长记性”,而是跟孩子存在某种学习能力障碍有关。“学习有障碍等于弱智吗?孩子这一生不就毁了吗?”“我家宝宝聪明可爱,绝不可能有学习障碍!”不少家长对于学习障碍一知半解,不是过分紧张,就是过分放心。

 

    什么是学习障碍呢?据儿童心理咨询师介绍,儿童学习障碍,也称学习困难。是指儿童的智力在正常范围,其智力测验分数(IQ)大于70,但在学校的学习中却存在严重困难。具体说,即在一门或几门主要课程(语文、数学等)的学习中有特殊障碍,常常达不到教学大纲规定的及格要求。

 

    据调查:学习障碍儿童在各个年龄阶段都有一个相对稳定的比例,据有关部门抽样调查,有14%的小学生在某一项或多项功课学习上存在困难,按比例推算,我国14岁以下的少年儿童中大约有6290万学习障碍儿童。因此,普及学习障碍知识,以便早期发现、早期诊断并帮助这些孩子,是大面积提高我国义务教育质量,帮助学习困难儿童成功地迈入社会的重要举措。

 

 

    学习障碍具体表现:

    ★注意力不集中,或者集中注意力的时间很短。

    ★对读、写、算等方面的记忆差;写字时看一笔写一笔,做作业的时间拖得太长;写字常多一画,少一笔,部首张冠李戴,左右颠倒;

    ★阅读时常出现增字、漏字、跳行等现象,或者有速度太快、太慢、停顿次数太多的问题;擅长朗读或背诵,但读后对内容一知半解;

    ★对数学应用题理解困难;计算过程中常忘记进位或者错位,忽略小数点或不理解运算符号;

    ★语言发展迟缓,表达能力不足。怕人,远离别人,害怕拥挤;胆小、害羞、缺乏自信,要么走向极端,通过很强的侵犯性来掩饰自卑;

    ★动作笨拙,笨手笨脚,常打碎东西;空间定向困难,一转就晕,不记路;常常跌倒、平衡有问题;

    ★挑食偏食,吃东西秀气,用指尖拿东西等等。

 

    学习障碍产生原因

    产生学习障碍的原因非常多。主要包括内部因素(如生理、心理方面的因素)和外部因素(如学校、家庭、生活环境等方面的因素)两方面。事实上,在形成学习困难的过程中,这些因素可单独作用,也可能相互作用。

     内部因素:一些儿童学习困难可能与脑损伤、脑发育不良、遗传、感染或营养不良有关。这些因素中的任何一个或几个的组合都可在不同程度上影响儿童学习能力的发展。

     外部因素:儿童生活的社会与文化背景对儿童的学习有很大影响。

     现在的孩子一般都是独生子,从小娇生惯养。可以说,家长们过分溺爱孩子、过度包办是影响孩子学习能力发展的一个重要因素;而独生子女与同龄孩子沟通少,常常一个人在家做智力游戏,动作性游戏极少。这也在一定程度上阻碍了孩子语言、动作能力的发展;另外,学业负担越来越重、家长期望过高,给幼小的孩子们无形中制造了许多紧张情绪;家长没有及时对孩子进行早期教育、家庭氛围不和谐及因偏食造成的儿童营养不良,也易引发孩子的学习障碍。

 

    如何克服学习障碍?

    目前,在我国克服学习障碍、开发儿童潜能都是国家教育部的重点研究课题。据儿童心理咨询师介绍,克服学习障碍主要是克服听、说、读、写、算等基本学习能力的落后或不足,这种学习能力的不足是可以借助有针对性的训练来弥补的。专家指出,对学习障碍的矫治,年龄越小效果越好,5至10岁是矫治的关键期。

    作为家长,要让孩子自己的事自己做,锻炼其手脑眼耳的协调能力,同时保持良好的家庭氛围。如果孩子确实存在学习能力上的不足,家长就要根据这些不足进行有针对性的教育和训练。比如孩子写字时看一笔写一笔,做作业的时间拖得太长,这是视觉动作统合协调能力落后,可让孩子做图形辨异、仿绘来训练孩子视觉对距离、长短及空间位置的把握,还可让孩子多进行手眼协作的运动,如剪纸、走迷宫或译码等。对年龄较小的孩子,进行拍球、丢接球或跳绳训练也会有所帮助。

    老师则应该帮助他们找到合适的学习方法,并以积极的态度对待他们,多表扬、多鼓励,其学习热情和能力一定会显著提高。必要时还可找有关专家或医生对孩子进行学习能力的诊断与咨询,如果条件允许,还可到专门的学习能力训练场所进行特殊的有针对性的训练。相信只要通过各方努力,孩子的学习效率、学习成绩会有极大提高的,有学习障碍的孩子们同样可以自豪地说:“我可以更好!”

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