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谈心理咨询效果的影响因素-给力心理
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谈心理咨询效果的影响因素

谈心理咨询效果的影响因素
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发表时间:2015-01-31 10:47:29 257 0 0

心理咨询效果的评价,大多没有固定的定性和定量指标作为衡量标准,尽管有的内容可采用心理测验的方式,但咨询实践中应用也不够普遍。这就形成了评估心理咨询效果主要凭心理感受,咨访双方将咨询前后的状况比较后,通过主观心理感受和反馈信息得出评价结论。事实上影响这一主观标准的因素众多,有的又是不可控的,因此,心理咨询生效并非百发百中,使来询者各个满意而归。来询者要懂得心理咨询不是万能的、包罗万象的,它对咨询对象是有一定选择的,就是说有些心理问题适合咨询解决,还有一些是不适合心理咨询的。

正如医生看病一样,有的病治疗效果确实、可靠,如感冒、炎症性疾病一般一星期即可治愈。还有的病治疗效果欠佳,病情只能好转或得到控制,如高血压、冠心病、风湿症等,要想治愈是很难的。更有一些无可奈何之症,至今尚没有好办法医治,患病后只能采用一切手段延续生命,如癌症、爱滋病、白血病等,这是医学的现状而不是医生的无能,医生只能作出无奈的表示。

从道理上弄清楚心理咨询效果的影响因素,对我们正确对待心理咨询这一新兴行业发展具有重大现实意义,对维护心理咨询的声誉也有助益。

在实际工作中,我觉得以下一些因素对心理咨询效果都能产生影响,只不过程度不同而已。

1、    文化因素。一般而言,文化程度高的人对心理咨询师的分析、推理、假设、对策等理解力强,认知调整快,自然效果就好;而文化程度低者,理解能力差些,这就要求咨询师使用简明通俗的语言,作生动形象的解释,籍此来提高心理咨询的效果。

2、个性因素。在性格特征中内省力强的人,乐意接受他人劝导和帮助,并勇于剖析自我,发现自身的不足,凭借自助的力量改变自己,咨询效果好。

悟性高的人听了他人见解即能迅速悟出其中奥妙,且感受深刻,内化显著,他人之助会成为自助的有力武器,也会有良好的咨询效果。

心理咨询师与来询者相互接受、相互容纳的程度高,匹配性好,有助于咨询效果的增强。如双方性格、气质有相似之点,感情表达、行为方式有相近之处等,都会因心理距离较近,互动良好而增强咨询的效果。

3、人格因素。有人格障碍的人会阻碍咨询关系的建立,进而影响心理咨询的效果。通常情况下,人格障碍难以矫正。

4、内容因素。心理咨询内容如情绪情感问题、学习发展问题、婚恋家庭问题、心理教育问题、适应不良等适合用心理咨询的方式解决;而心理障碍、行为障碍、精神障碍、神经症等心理咨询具有阶段性,必须伴随药物治疗才能取得全面的功效。

5、年龄因素。青年来询者的咨询效果显著,与其接受新事物快,认知能力强,表达能力强不无关系。儿童、幼儿尚不成熟,认知能力有限,心理咨询难以奏效。老年人认知能力开始减退,加之阅历深,经验丰富,多表现为固执己见,心理咨询的效果也会打折扣。

6、动机因素。来询者有较强的心理需求,求助心理咨询师的动机明确,就能积极配合,咨询效果会大增;对于无动机而在家长逼迫下勉强咨询的,或动机不纯只图求得安慰和支持的人,被动咨询是不会有什么明显效果的。

7、交流因素。对于健谈、乐于沟通、交流能力强的来询者,能够清楚明白地表达自己的问题,有助于咨询效果的提高。那些心情抑郁、不善言辞、胆怯、孤僻的人,经常会出现“挤牙膏”式的面谈,咨询效果就会减弱。

8、意志因素。意志力坚强的来询者,明确了问题的肯綮,会幡然悔悟,痛改前非,以坚定不移的毅力矫正存在的问题,这是一种咨询增效的品质特征。意志力薄弱者,则对问题的调整难以下决心,往往明日复明日,或三天打鱼两天晒网难以坚持,甚至导致一次有效的咨询发生“流产”。

9、信任因素。咨访关系是一种互相信任的关系,信任才能达到和谐状态。来询者信任咨询师所采用的理论、方法、技巧是实用的,有效的,就能取得良好的效果。如果一味怀疑、试探、观望的态度,是不会取得良好咨询效果的。

10、疗程因素。心理咨询是根据不同性质的问题确定疗效的,疗程长短不一。指望一次咨询解决所有的问题是不实际的,指望一次咨询解决多年存在的问题也是不可能的。有的来询者往往操之过急,缺乏耐心等待这一渐进的过程画上句号。

11、支持因素。对来询者来说外部支持系统很重要。有一批与人为善、热心帮助、同情关注的亲属、朋友、同事、邻里等都会促进其成长;相反,支持系统缺失对咨询的效果会起到减损作用。

12、咨询师因素。心理咨询师的职业道德、工作态度、理论修养、专业技巧、思维方式、信息收集等都会不同程度地影响咨询效果。

     综上,社会人群中并非谁都适合作心理咨询,也不是所有的心理问题都适合作心理咨询。心理咨询有严格的适应范围,世人不可不知,专业人员不可不掌握。然而,现实生活中的心理问题往往一股脑儿找心理咨询机构,只有由心理咨询师区别对待,尽力排除影响心理咨询效果的一些干扰因素,使咨询效果达到最佳。

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本文作者

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长程个案

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咨询时
0 性价比

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