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心理学中的巴纳姆效应-给力心理
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心理学中的巴纳姆效应

心理学中的巴纳姆效应
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发表时间:2015-02-28 16:18:50 225 0 0

朋友一次问我世界上什么事最难。我说挣钱最难,他摇头。哥德巴赫猜想?他又摇头。我说我放弃,你告诉我吧。他神秘兮兮地说是认识你自己。的确,那些富于思想的哲学家们也都这么说。

   我是谁,我从哪里来,又要到哪里去,这些问题从古希腊开始,人们就开始问自己,然而都没有得出令人满意的结果。

   然而,即便如此,人从来没有停止过对自我的追寻。

   正因为如此,人常常迷失在自我当中,很容易受到周围信息的暗示,并把他人的言行作为自己行动的参照,从众心理便是典型的证明。

   其实,人在生活中无时无刻不受到他人的影响和暗示。比如,在公共汽车上,你会发现这样一种现象:一个人张大嘴打了个哈欠,他周围会有几个人也忍不住打起了哈欠。有些人不打哈欠是因为他们受暗示性不强。哪些人受暗示性强呢?可以通过一个简单的测试检查出来。

   让一个人水平伸出双手,掌心朝上,闭上双眼。告诉他现在他的左手上系了一个氢气球,并且不断向上飘;他的右手上绑了一块大石头,向下坠。三分钟以后,看他双手之间的差距,距离越大,则暗示性越强。

   认识自己,心理学上叫自我知觉,是个人了解自己的过程。在这个过程中,人更容易受到来自外界信息的暗示,从而出现自我知觉的偏差。

   在日常生活中,人既不可能每时每刻去反省自己,也不可能总把自己放在局外人的地位来观察自己。正因为如此,个人便借助外界信息来认识自己。个人在认识自我时很容易受外界信息的暗示,从而常常不能正确地知觉自己。

   心理学的研究揭示,人很容易相信一个笼统的、一般性的人格描述特别适合他。即使这种描述十分空洞,他仍然认为反映了自己的人格面貌。曾经有心理学家用一段笼统的、几乎适用于任何人的话让大学生判断是否适合自己,结果,绝大多数大学生认为这段话将自己刻画得细致入微、准确至极。下面一段话是心理学家使用的材料,你觉得是否也适合你呢?

   你很需要别人喜欢并尊重你。你有自我批判的倾向。你有许多可以成为你优势的能力没有发挥出来,同时你也有一些缺点,不过你一般可以克服它们。你与异性的交往有些困难,尽管外表上显得很从容,其实你内心焦急不安。你有时怀疑自己所做的决定或所做的事是否正确。你喜欢生活有些变化,厌恶被人限制。你以自己能独立思考而自豪,别人的建议如果没有充分的证据你不会接受。你认为在别人面前过于坦率地表露自己是不明智的。你有时外向、亲切、好交际,而有时则内向、谨慎、沉默。你的有些抱负往往很不现实。

   这其实是一顶套在谁头上都合适的帽子。

   一位名叫肖曼·巴纳姆的著名杂技师在评价自己的表演时说,他之所以很受欢迎是因为节目中包含了每个人都喜欢的成分,所以他使得“每一分钟都有人上当受骗”。人们常常认为一种笼统的、一般性的人格描述十分准确地揭示了自己的特点,心理学上将这种倾向称为“巴纳姆效应”。

   有位心理学家给一群人做完明尼苏达多相人格检查表(MMPI)后,拿出两份结果让参加者判断哪一份是自己的结果。事实上,一份是参加者自己的结果,另一份是多数人的回答平均起来的结果。参加者竟然认为后者更准确地表达了自己的人格特征。

   巴纳姆效应在生活中十分普遍。拿算命来说,很多人请教过算命先生后都认为算命先生说的“很准”。其实,那些求助算命的人本身就有易受暗示的特点。当人的情绪处于低落、失意的时候,对生活失去控制感,于是,安全感也受到影响。一个缺乏安全感的人,心理的依赖性也大大增强,受暗示性就比平时更强了。加上算命先生善于揣摩人的内心感受,稍微能够理解求助者的感受,求助者立刻会感到一种精神安慰。算命先生接下来再说一段一般的、无关痛痒的话便会使求助者深信不疑。

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本文作者

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