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第三性-给力心理
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第三性

第三性
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发表时间:2015-02-05 10:44:36 440 0 0

第三性 及 第三性别 描述一类自愿或被社会共识上认为不属于雄性/男人或雌性/女人的人。以两性社会的认知为基础,在提及一些承认第三种甚至更多性别的社会时,本用词亦用于指出那些属于第一及第二性别以外的社会群体。“第三”一词通常意指为“其他”;有些人类学家和社会学家亦曾用到第四[1] 、第五[2]、甚至“多”[3]性别的说法。第三、第四及多性别的说法在西方的概念分类方式下可能比较难以理解。[4]

第三性指可以是在生物学上,指出该人可能同时拥有男女两种性征或性器官,或两者均无,不一定专指曾进行变性手术或易服人士。[5]。

各国情况

受不同的文化影响,各地区对第三性的看法不同,甚至大相径庭。

印度

主条目:海吉拉

在古代的印度,第三性是神圣的,并作为灵媒被供奉在寺庙中。一般人新婚时会聘请第三性对其祝福。

现代的海吉拉却是印度最受轻视、最孤立的群体,被排斥在社会的边缘,生活在阴暗的世界里,遵循着自己的习惯和规矩,与普通人保持着距离。小孩在出生时若被确认为第三性,会被第三性族群带走一起生活,且与家人断绝关系。

澳洲

澳洲于2011年9月15日宣布,护照性别栏已可使用"X"性,代表性别未定。[6][7]

英国

出于自由民主党的压力,英国外交部正慎重考虑接受“无性别”护照。为拥护“绝对平等”,所有人的护照性别一栏可能改为“X”,即不分性别。[7]

尼泊尔

在2011年5月,尼泊尔人口普查员挨家挨户地对其560万个家庭进行了走访,他们不光收集这个国家男性公民和女性公民的信息,还收集了所谓的第三性别的信息。尼泊尔中央统计局对同性恋以及变性人群的官方承认应该是世界首例。[8]

巴基斯坦

在2009年6月,巴基斯坦最高法院调查了巴基斯坦国内80000——300000个海吉拉人口的信息。在2009年12月,最高法院主席伊夫提卡·穆罕迈德·考得利调查了他们的国内现有户口和新注册户口的数据库和现有集体人口的身份证,找出明显的“性”区分。 海吉拉组织总统阿尔马斯·波比向路透社透露,“这是巴基斯坦62年历史以来,每步都给我们(海吉拉)的人口幸福。这是给海吉拉有福利和身份迈出了重要的一步,我们在社会里面得到幸福的进度已慢慢地被人们接受。现在社会的人群都认可海吉拉了。”在巴基斯坦,海吉拉的团体(一般4——12人,当地又名“上师”,又名“咕噜”)的生活都是一个家庭以表演、跳舞或唱歌的模式(例如生日、结婚或婴儿的出生)。这是主办方要给钱或粮食或其他物品给海吉拉的义务。在旁遮普中部地区,海吉拉的团体分开成多个团体或小团体不干涉其他领域的活动(因为其他领域团体被视为不道德的行为)。

泰国

主条目:第三性别厕所

人妖是泰国的一大特色(泰文中礼貌的说法是‘双性人小姐’,普通的说法是‘变性人’)。2000年之后,选择人妖这条路的泰国男孩每年都在增加,其中不乏普通家庭出生的孩子。在2010年4月,迫于泰国某些学校学生的压力,泰国北部一家公立中学里建成了第三性别专用厕所,专门供“想变为女子的男性”使用。很快,此举便得到了泰国不少中小学的效仿。

孟加拉国

孟加拉国从2013年11月份开始,正式承认第三性,在官方文件上标注海吉拉身份。

新西兰

从2012年12月开始,新西兰的护照上用“X”作为第三性别(即未确定/未声明),并不需要他们同时更改出生证明和公民文件上的性别记录。[9][10][11]

德国

从2013年12月开始,德国在出生证明上用“X”作为第三性别[12]。

参考

1.     ^ Roscoe, Will (2000). Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America. Palgrave Macmillan (June 17, 2000) ISBN 0-312-22479-6
See also: Trumbach, Randolph (1994). London’s Sapphists: From Three Sexes to Four Genders in the Making of Modern Culture. In Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History, edited by Gilbert Herdt, 111-36. New York: Zone (MIT). ISBN 978-0-942299-82-3

2.     ^ Graham, Sharyn (2001), Sulawesi's fifth gender, Inside Indonesia, April–June 2001.

3.     ^ Martin, M. Kay and Voorhies, Barbara (1975). Supernumerary Sexes, chapter 4 of Female of the Species (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975), 23.

4.     ^ McGee, R. Jon and Richard L. Warms 2011 Anthropological Theory: An Introductory History. New York, McGraw Hill.

5.     ^ 法语学习:男性或灭绝,第三种性别将出现?. 沪江法语. 2013-04-09 (中文(简体)‎).

6.     ^ 自由时报 2011-9-16 [1]

7.     ^ 7.0 7.1 人民网健康卫生频道2011年09月26日09:24 [2]

8.     ^ Nepal census recognizes 'third gender' (May, 31st. 2011) [3]

9.     ^ The Department of Internal Affairs, New Zealand Government. Retrieved 10 December 2012. [4]

10.  ^ X marks the spot on passport for transgender travellers [5]

11.  ^ 新西兰护照开始标注“第三种性别 ” [6]

12.  ^ Germany got it right by offering a third gender option on birth certificates. Guardian News. 10 November 2013 [2014-04-01].

 

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本文作者

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公益助人

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收费助人

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长程个案

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续单率

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