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双性恋-给力心理
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双性恋

双性恋
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发表时间:2015-02-05 10:31:15 385 0 0

双性恋,亦称为双性向,是一种性倾向或行为,指不只对单一性别(包括对雄性与雌性)皆会产生爱慕情绪,并容易被他们的身体吸引的倾向。它是三大主要性倾向分类之一,与异性恋、同性恋倾向齐列。对雄、雌性皆不产生性吸引的个体则为无性向。据美国全国性健康和行为研究,美国成人当中有3.1%为双性恋,2.5%为同性恋,女性有双性倾向者高于男性,同性倾向者的女性低于男性。[1]

双性恋可见于各种人类社会的历史记载,同时也存在于其他动物当中。而“双性恋”一词则产生于19世纪。

术语

“双性”(bisexual)这个词最早出现在植物学。植物学家用这个词描述那些同时具有雄性与雌性生殖器官的植物。可是现在还未清楚人们什么时候把“双性”这个词运用到人类的性倾向。一些双性恋者和性研究专家并不喜欢这个词的用法, 所以他们又发展了一些其他词汇来描述“双性恋”。然而很多这些新词在社会上并不普遍使用。

双性恋的普及率(具争议)

一些研究,在阿尔弗烈德·查尔斯·金赛的《男性性行为》(Sexual Behavior in the Human Male,1948年)和《女性性行为》(Sexual Behavior in the Human Female,1953年)中,一项试验要求受访者从一个由绝对同性恋到绝对异性恋连续变化的性取向谱中对自己进行评估,然后对评估结果进行综合分析研究后,金赛认为大部分人群显示出至少在某种程度上是双性恋者(金赛报告仍不断被指出存在统计和方法的错误。故此评估观点仅作参考,不具实际性和明确性。)。很多人都会被双性所吸引,虽然通常他们只偏向于某一种性别。

历史

在大部分为人所知的社会中,都能发现不同程度的双性恋个案;而这些个案在现代的文化体系中常被当做同性恋看待。事实上,如“异性恋”、“双性恋”、“同性恋”等具有较清楚定义的现代词语,在早期历史文本中是找不到的。然而综观历史,在中国古代君主及士大夫、古希腊城邦[2]或罗马帝国公民、日本封建时代的武士阶层……,甚至阿拉伯文化中,均可发现有家室的男性同时维持着同性恋关系的记载;其中亚历山大大帝(Alexander the Great)与挚友赫费斯提翁(Hephaestion)之间密切的同性爱关系尤广为人知。历史上的汉武帝也可能是双性恋者(与韩嫣和卫子夫的关系)。[3]

西方社会中的双性恋

有些同性恋者有时候也称呼自己为双性向,以做为对自身的一种保护。或有一些双性向者,被认为是一些不敢承认自己是同性恋的“同性恋”。这种现象在现在的流行文化,比如电影、电视、甚至音乐中都很常见。在同性恋文化群体里,人们也习惯于说“他现在是个双性恋,一会儿就会变成同性恋”。非常有名的美国电视剧《六人行》(又译《老友记》)中有一首很短的歌词,代表着这种普遍的误解:

有时候男人爱女人,有时候男人爱男人, 另外还有双性向,但有些人只是在欺骗他们自己。

因为双性向有时并不觉得他们属于同性恋社区,也因为双性向在公众场合下通常是不公开的。而有些人倾向于建立他们自己的社区和运动。在把他们向社会更加公开的努力中,迈克尔·佩奇创造了双性恋自豪旗帜。

双性向者也可能成为广义同性恋恐惧者暴力的受害者。如美国演员丹纳·卡维(Dana Carvey)在《周末夜现场》(Saturday Night Live)节目里说:“双性向者是那些扒下任何一个人的裤子,不管发现什么都会得到满足的人”。

双性恋自豪旗帜

作为双性恋团体象征的双性恋自豪旗帜是由麦可·佩奇设计的。双性恋旗帜的上端是代表同性恋的红色或者粉红色条纹,底端是代表异性恋的蓝色条纹,中间是代表双性恋的紫色条纹。

泛性恋[

主条目:泛性恋

泛性恋(pansexual)跟双性恋相类似。两者区别在于双性恋对于恋爱对象仍有性别之分,而泛性恋则不强调恋爱对象的性别。

其他主题

·         著名同性恋和双性恋人士列表

·         同性恋

·         无性恋(asexual)

·         性倾向

·         泛性恋

·         双性恋自豪日

参考资料

1.     ^ How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender?

2.     ^ 古斯巴达(Sparta)也鼓励士兵间的同性性爱关系,即便这些男性士兵有妻子有孩子。斯巴达人认为年长士兵和年轻士兵间的性爱关系能使士兵在战斗中团结一致,并且为了给自己的爱人留下美好印象或者为了保护自己的爱人,士兵在作战时会更勇敢。参见底比斯圣队。

3.     ^ Chun-shu Chang (2007), The Rise of the Chinese Empire: Nation, State, and Imperialism in Early China p.91-2, ca. 1600 B.C.-A.D. 8. ISBN 0472115332.

 

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本文作者

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公益助人

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收费助人

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长程个案

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续单率

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