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犯罪心理学-给力心理
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犯罪心理学

犯罪心理学
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发表时间:2015-02-05 09:48:41 193 0 0

犯罪心理学是一门研究犯罪事件相关人物的行为的科学。与犯罪相关的人物,一般首先想到的是犯罪人,但也包括职司逮捕、侦查、追诉、审判、行刑的各种司法人员;此外也包括证人和被害人。

犯罪心理学家也可以作为鉴定人(英美法称为专家证人),以帮助法官和陪审团了解犯人的心理、证人记忆的可信性等问题。

精神医学亦有处理到一部份的犯罪行为,尤其是精神病犯罪人的治疗。

犯罪人的研究

就犯人而言,研究他在不同情境下的行为原因和可能抑制犯罪的因素,这大概也是公共议题上最重要的的问题。犯罪心理学也研究犯罪人在犯罪后的行为,像是在被追捕过程的反抗或更进一步犯罪,在法庭上的陈述,在监狱里的行为,再犯矫治的有效因素等等。

“如何透过矫治来减少再犯”是至今较被忽视,但就一个社会的犯罪处理而言相当重要的犯罪心理学议题是。当代对犯人矫治研究最先进的国家是加拿大。

历史

犯罪心理学或称为罪犯侧写,起源于1940年代时,当时的美国战略情报局(中央情报局前身)要求精神病学家威廉·兰格侧写阿道夫·希特勒的心理。第二次世界大战之后,英国的精神病学家利昂内尔·哈瓦特在英国皇家空军中工作,侧写了一串纳粹的高阶战犯可能表现出来的行为特征,以期能由一群被捕的士兵和飞行员中找出他们。

1950年代时,美国精神病学家布鲁赛尔精确地侧写了恐怖份子攻击纽约的不寻常心理状态。

最快速的发展出现在联邦调查局在匡堤科开了联邦调查局学院之后,此一学院导致了全国研究暴力罪行中心和暴力犯罪执导系统的建立。其原初的想法是想建立一个可以找出许多无解的重大犯罪之间关连性的系统。

在英国,大卫·康特博士是于1980年代中期指导警方侦探侦办已犯下一连串重大攻击行为的罪犯的一位先驱,但康特博士看到了“罪犯侧绘”的局限性-尤其是在做为一个心理学家的主观、个人看法之下。他和一位同事创立了“调查心理学”这一词,并且开始尝试以他们认为较科学的观点来逼进此一主题。

 

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本文作者

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公益助人

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收费助人

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长程个案

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续单率

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