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季节性情感障碍 -给力心理
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季节性情感障碍

季节性情感障碍
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发表时间:2015-05-07 09:52:26 241 0 0

季节性情感障碍是以与特定季节(特别是冬季)有关的抑郁为特征的一种心境障碍。是每年同一时间反复出现抑郁发作为特征的一组疾患。这种抑郁症与白天的长短,或环境光亮程度有关。研究发现,季节性抑郁症发作的机率与当月的平均气温、光照周期的长短是明显相关的。同时还注意到,季节性情感障碍常表现为有规律地在冬季发生抑郁,夏季呈轻度躁狂,二者交替出现。然而,通常季节性情感障碍不被认为是独立的情绪障碍,而认为是具有季节特征的重性抑郁发作的特殊类型。这种重性抑郁发作,可以见于重性抑郁症和躁狂抑郁症。

【季节性情感障碍的原因】
    可能是:1、创伤性体验的重现;2、光对动物行为,冬眠及光对人类生物节律的影响。因而改变这些因素,特别是光,对减轻患者症状或减少复发率将起到决定作用。
季节性情感障碍的光疗法疗效显著,这可在门诊或病房进行,光疗每期为一周,共两周。中间隔一周不用光照。对近百名患者的治疗反应显示,用比普通室内照明度亮数倍的人工光线来延长白昼时间,可使患者在数日内感到心境显著改善,且在治疗的一周内一直保持。但撤去光照,常在数日内复发。因而认为,光的强度是疗效大小的关键因素,因为用与强光相同的方式以普通室内光治疗效果不大,这可解释何以冬季普遍存在的室内光并不能对变得抑郁的患者起保护作用。动物实验证实,普通强度的光确能影响其它哺乳动物的季节节律。所以,延长光照的抗抑郁效应可以说是人类对强光的第三种效应。
因此,医生及患者家属应注意观察情感障碍病人的症状发病等有无季节性,这对指导治疗有所帮助,在条件许可的情况下,让季节性情感障碍患者移居到南方地区,这样可能会使症状减轻。

【发病人群】

季节性情感障碍通常起病于成年期(平均起病年龄是23岁),女性是男性的4倍。大约有1,100万人被诊断为季节性情感障碍。

【季节性情感障碍的症状】

季节性情感障碍有两个与季节有关的症状:
秋季起病型,也称为"冬季抑郁",重性抑郁发作起病于秋末至初冬,夏季缓解;
春天起病型,也称为"夏季抑郁",严重的抑郁发作起病于春末至夏初。
以下是季节性情感障碍最常见的症状,但是不同的患者可以有不同的表现。这些症?包括:
●睡眠增加和白天困倦
●焦躁
●疲劳或精力下降
●性欲减退
●注意集中困难
●清晰思维困难
●食欲增加引起体重增加,特别是甜食和碳水化合物
季节性情感障碍的症状可以与其它精神疾病相似,需就医诊断。

【季节性情感障碍的治疗】

医生根据以下情况决定季节性情感障碍的治疗:
●患者年龄、健康状况和病史
●疾病的程度
●对特殊药品、检查和治疗的耐受性
●对病情的估计
●病人对治疗的意见和选择
冬季抑郁和夏季抑郁的治疗是不同的,治疗可以选择单用或合用以下项目:
●光疗
●药物治疗
●心理治疗
防治关键:建立正常的生物钟
选择500瓦的白炽灯,于清晨4~6时逐渐调节灯光的照明强度,人为地帮助患儿建立正常的生物钟。实践证明,这种方法十分有效,而且患儿无须积极地参与,只是在睡眠状态下接受治疗。

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