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哲学心理咨询-给力心理
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哲学心理咨询
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发表时间:2015-04-24 11:06:23 184 0 0

几乎所有的传统心理咨询与治疗取向,都具有鲜明的哲学特征和哲学色彩,具有相应的哲学根基,都可以归属于心理学形态的哲学心理咨询。

哲学心理咨询(philosophical counseling)是一个正在形成的理论和实践领域。顾名思义,哲学心理咨询既是哲学的,也是心理学的;既是一种职业,也是一种专业。它虽然冠以哲学的“名头”,具有哲学的“痕迹”,但其本身既不是哲学思辨,也不是哲学研究。哲学心理咨询的兴起把人们从追求普遍、抽象、单一的心灵桎梏中解放出来,倡导在具体、真实、多元的语境中为人们提供心灵的慰藉,扩展和提升人的心灵境界。它不以灌输灰色玄奥的哲学理论为目的,不受来访者受教育水平的限制。在具体的咨询形式上,哲学心理咨询可以是一对一的个别咨询方式,也可以采取团体咨询的方式;可以是面对面的直接咨询,也可以通过电话、网络、书信等中介方式来进行。

以对话为中心:哲学形态的哲学心理咨询

哲学形态的哲学心理咨询是一种崭新的“应用哲学”的具体形态,也称之为狭义的哲学心理咨询。这一名词源于20世纪80年代兴起的哲学应用或哲学实践运动。阿肯巴赫在德国率先建立了哲学心理咨询机构,并主办了专门的学术刊物。随后,这一运动迅速扩展至欧美各国,并取得了一系列进展。一是创建了众多的学术组织,主要有德国的国际哲学实践协会、美国哲学实践者协会、咨询与心理治疗协会等。二是涌现出许多领军人物和代表著作,如美国哲学心理咨询协会前任主席马瑞诺夫的《柏拉图灵丹——哲学在日常问题中的应用》、英国实践哲学协会现任主席利波恩的《智慧的治疗》。哲学形态的哲学心理咨询以对话而不是诊断为核心,不是将来访者看成病人而是看成健康人,其基本形式是在咨询师与来访者之间展开一种自由的对话。目前,在国外已有三种比较成熟的方法取向。

马瑞诺夫的“宁静”法宁静(PEACE)是问题(problem)、情绪(emotion)、分析(analysis)、沉思(comtemplation)和平衡(equilibrium)五个步骤首字母的缩写。首先需要识别问题,每个人都有自己的预警系统,当面临问题时大多数人都能意识到,但问题比较复杂时,就需要花费一定的精力和资源去识别。其次,查清由相关问题引发的所有情绪。这是一种内在的统计,来访者的感情很可能是痛苦、愤怒和悲伤的组合,必须在其真实地经历过这些情感后,建设性地加以引导。第三步是分析,列出解决问题的各种选择并加以评估。理想的解决方案是既能解决外部的事情(问题),又能解决内部的事情(由问题所激起的情绪),但理想的方案不一定是可实现的。第四步是沉思,从整体上审视问题的情景,培养对所面临问题的一致的哲学观点。最后是平衡,就是再清楚地说出自己的问题,表达情绪,分析选择,沉思你的哲学立场,之后达到个人平衡,即厘清问题的实质,形成做好行动准备的态度。

瑞安比的四阶段法瑞安比在《哲学心理咨询:理论与实践》一书中提出了哲学心理咨询的四个阶段(FITT)。第一,自由浮现(free-floating)阶段,使双方对彼此的关系都感到舒服而没有压力,能使用苏格拉底式的“产婆术”帮助来访者呈现问题所在。第二,当下问题解决(immediate problems solution)阶段,问题浮现后,要澄清问题的性质,共同探求解决问题的方法。第三,意向性行为教导(teaching as intentional act)阶段,在寻求到解决问题的方法之后,双方都要有意向性地教与学。第四,超越(transcendence)阶段,在来访者学习的过程中,要学会如何超越个人目前的状况,使自己不再沉迷于过去的痛苦经历。

阿肯巴赫的超越方法法 哲学心理咨询的首倡者阿肯巴赫主张“超越方法法”(beyond-method method),认为哲学心理咨询不应有固定的方法,而应按照来访者的具体问题情境选择不同的谈话进入方式,不要像心理治疗那样用事先规定好的心理学理论去套来访者的问题,也不要划定只用某个或某些哲学家的思想概念,总之就是不要用那些固定不变的、封闭僵化的咨询方法。咨询师和来访者双方通过平等的、真诚的对话,逐渐澄清了存在的意义,扩展了生活的视野。咨询师并不能将自己对问题的理解强加给来访者,哲学心理咨询的目的不是给来访者提供问题的“药方”,也不提供任何标准答案,而是激发来访者自身解决问题的灵感、洞见和热情。尽管如此,他还是提出了四条实施的规则:第一,咨询师不应对所有来访者使用同一种方法,要随机制宜。第二,咨询师应协助来访者使其了解自己的状况。第三,咨询师不能预设立场。第四,咨询师应帮助来访者扩大视阈。

具有浓厚的哲学色彩:心理学形态的哲学心理咨询

心理学形态的哲学心理咨询,也称为“心理学的哲学心理咨询”,是指在心理学范围、领域或传统中的哲学心理咨询,主要表现为在各种具有深厚哲学意涵,具有鲜明哲学特质的心理学意义上的心理咨询取向和方法。心理学家在具有鲜明哲学色彩的心理学理论、原理和方法的基础上所形成的这类心理咨询与治疗取向,因其具有浓厚的哲学色彩,也被归于广义的哲学心理咨询的范畴。

心理学形态的哲学心理咨询有“存在主义心理咨询”、“现象学心理咨询”、“诠释学心理咨询”、“叙事心理咨询”等等。从名称上看,这类哲学心理咨询冠以“存在主义”、“现象学”、“诠释学”的哲学“名头”,具有各自独特的哲学背景,但它们并不直接以各自的哲学基础为背景,而是建立在各自哲学取向上的心理学基础之上。如存在主义心理咨询是在存在主义心理学的基础上建立起来的,而不是直接来源于存在主义哲学传统。同样,现象学心理咨询的直接理论来源是现象学心理学,而不是现象学哲学。

几乎所有的传统心理咨询与治疗取向,都具有鲜明的哲学特征和哲学色彩,具有相应的哲学根基,都可以归属于心理学形态的哲学心理咨询。即便是最接近“科学”标准的行为疗法(包括认知行为疗法),也扎根于行为主义哲学的理论根基之上。心理咨询的目的在于阐释意义、启迪智慧,而不是为了穴窠于实验科学的外在标准与框架。因此,从这个意义上说,世界上存在的250多种心理咨询或治疗方法,与其说是“科学的”,不如说是“哲学的”。

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本文作者

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公益助人

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长程个案

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续单率

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咨询时
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