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强迫症的性格因素分析 -给力心理
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强迫症的性格因素分析

强迫症的性格因素分析
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发表时间:2015-04-21 10:54:08 210 0 0

强迫症的形成一般都有一定的性格基础,这些性格特征比较复杂,但不是强迫症所特有的,就是正常人也或多或少的有此类特征。同时,也并非有此性格特征的人一定会形成强迫症。概括的来说,强迫症的基本性格特征有如下几个:
 
     1、内向性
 
    这里所说的内向性并非仅仅是大家日常认为的那种不爱说话的表现,而是指注意力和精神能量集中于内部的世界。这就意味着他们的大部分活动都是精神上的。这样的人做事细心周密,十分谨慎。很容易陷入沉思的迷宫,做事情总是前思后想,优柔寡断,甚至三思而不行。
 
    由于精神能量过多的指向内部,所以对自己的想法、观念、冲动、躯体感觉、行动都十分敏感,时刻关注着自己的这些方面,一旦出现任何人都会出现的异常情况,就非常紧张和焦虑。
 
    2、自我反省性强 

    表现为反省心强、任何事情都非常认真。只考虑自己的事情,过分仔细地分析自己的心身状况,夸大仅有的弱点、缺点,抱着劣等感不放,带有观念性的理想主义倾向。一旦头脑里出现不符合自己的价值观或道德观念的想法,就非常焦虑,预除之而后快。如果觉得自己的哪些话说的不合适,或哪些表现不适当,就会深深的自责。并想尽一切办法避免以后重蹈覆辙。
 
    3、责任感太强
 
    强迫症朋友对可能降临到自己或别人身上的伤害负有夸张的责任感。强迫症朋友主观上认为自己会导致或有能力防止严重消极结果的产生,这些消极的结果既涉及生活也涉及道德。有些人认为:如果自己不实施某个行为就会发生什么不幸的事情,或者自己实施了某个行为就会发生什么不幸的事情,自己对于这种不幸事情的发生负有不可推卸的责任。有些余光强迫、口水强迫、直视恐怖的朋友认为自己对余社交的成败负有百分之百的责任,自己对别人的情绪也负有百分之百的责任,如果对方情绪不好那完全是由自己的症状引起的。 
 
    4、认为自己的意志力可以控制自己的一切 

    所有强迫观念和行为都是出自强迫症朋友本人的大脑,而非什么外力或超自然力量的控制。这样他们会认为:既然都是自己的想法,凭自己的主观毅力一定是可以控制的。于是,就想尽一切办法进行控制,但是却越控制越严重。当无法控制这些想法时,他们便会对这些想法极为敏感和警觉,由此逐渐发展成为一种强迫模式。 这样就会产生自卑感、无能感、自我无用感,从而引发抑郁情绪。
    
    5、强烈的完善欲
 
    强迫症朋友都有一种极强的自我发展欲望,而且因为是理智的,意识性的,所以对自己的心身状态和自己的工作,要求的标准高。经常都抱有梦想与目标并努力为之。往往把一些微不足道的弱点、缺点夸大成重大问题而苦恼。强烈的完善欲,具有为了更好的工作,更好地生活,不惜一切努力,这是积极的方面。但是,如果太过分时,则会成为完善主义者,常为不完美而烦恼,对任何事物都求全责备,力求完善,总是没有成功感,总是有劣等感,怨恨周围的一切,而不胜苦恼。 
 
    6、过高估计风险 
 
    强迫症朋友会夸张负面影响的可能性和严重性。强迫症朋友很难区分情景的危险程度。他们不能根据情境中缺乏危险的信息,来得出情境是安全的结论。即便是在低风险的情境中,他们仍然感到焦虑和痛苦,并强烈希望改变环境。
 
    如:强迫清洗的患者,当他接触到某些他所恐惧的物品之后,其实他的手上或者身上并没有粘上什么可怕的病毒或细菌,能让他患上某种可怕疾病的可能性也非常小。即使是真的粘上了某些病毒或细菌只需要正常的清洗就可以了。这是一种低风险的情境,可是强迫症患者过高的估计了这种风险仍然感到不安全,从而产生痛苦和焦虑。为了改变环境和降低自己的痛苦和焦虑,他必须进行反复的长时间的清洗。 
 
 
    7、无法忍受模棱两可:
 
    不能容忍模棱两可是强迫性信念的明显症状,这些强迫性信念包括:苛求确定性,难以处理不可预见的变化,以及不适应模棱两可的情境。 
 
    如:强迫性穷思竭虑朋友苛求答案的确定性。他们会反复的思考:“到底有没有外星人”;“一加一为什么等于二”;“人为什么会说话”;等等问题。如果这些问题不能得出自己满意的确定的答案,就会感到非常不舒服,必须继续思考下去。 
 

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