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精神分析学派的心理社会观-给力心理
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精神分析学派的心理社会观

精神分析学派的心理社会观
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发表时间:2015-04-09 10:22:37 303 0 0

1879年,德国莱比锡大学的年轻心理学家冯特建立了世界上第一个心理学实验室,从而宣布了现代心理学的诞生。

冯特的心理学体系包括两个部分:实验心理学和民族心理学,其中前者研究心理的元素分析,而后者是用历史分析法写成的社会心理学专著,冯特也因此成为学院派心理学的创始人。

大约十年之后,奥地利著名的心理学家弗洛伊德创立了他的古典精神分析理论,从内在动力的思路对人类的人格与心理发展加以分析,取得了前所未有的荣耀。尽管人们对他的理论有着这样那样的不满,但是弗洛伊德的勇气和远见卓识使得用他的影响遍布人类生活的所有领域:包括文学、艺术、宗教、哲学、民俗、医学以及心理学等等。

古典精神分析最致命的弱点是它忽视了外在的社会因素对人格发展的影响,从而把人格的发展看成是一个可以独立于外部世界的封闭的体系。

同时弗洛伊德对性因素的过分强调使得他的追随者也不能容忍,被他视为左膀右臂的两个学派中坚阿德勒(A. Adler)和荣格(K. Jung)先后退出精神分析学派就足以说明这一点。

其中阿德勒反对弗洛伊德把人格发展归于性因素的观点,认为在成长过程中的自卑感才是推动人格发展的动力。

阿德勒用补偿作用(Compensation)、权力意志(Will for power)、生活风格(Life style)和社会兴趣(Social interesting)等外部社会因素解释人格的成长与发展,他的这一思路到目前为至依然被继承,阿德勒的心理学被称为个体心理学(Individual psychology).

与阿德勒一样,被弗洛伊德看作王储的荣格也强调广泛社会因素对人格发展的影响,他把弗洛伊德的力比多(Libido)看成是一种普遍的生命力,而不仅仅是性能量。

荣格最重要的贡献是他对无意识理论的发展,在他看来,无意识还可以分为个体无意识和集体无意识,其中个体无意识指的是个体与生俱来的本能和生命早期被压抑的欲望,集体无意识则是指在种族发展过程中积累起来的一些特性,它从最核心的层次上决定人类的行为与心理特征。可以看出,荣格的集体无意识实际上是强调社会文化积淀对个体的作用,荣格的心理学被称为分析心理学。

在弗洛伊德之后,精神分析学派进一步发展。

弗洛伊德的女儿安娜?弗洛伊德(Anna Freud)对弗洛伊德理论加以发展,在她的著作《自我防御机制》中,她用自我发展的观点替代了其父的性因素说。她的学生哈特曼(H. Hartmann)和艾里克森(Erikson)则进一步提出了各自的自我心理学(Ego Psychology),强调自我发展对人的意义。

在新精神分析学派中,有一种叫做社会文化学派的观点更是明确地指出社会文化对人格发展的影响。其中霍妮(Karen Horney)认为家庭环境和教养方式决定人格,性因素不是行为错乱的原因,西方社会的竞争制度才是罪魁祸首。

沙利文则从人际关系与人际交往的角度看待人格发展,他认为人格的形成与社会影响有着紧密的联系,人格就是那些经常发生在人与人之间相互交往的相对持久的行为模式。卡丁纳(A. Kardiner)用人类的文化材料说明人格的形成,他指出:文化与社会的变化为检验和发展人格理论提供了背景。

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本文作者

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长程个案

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