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孤独让孩子埋下“多重人格”隐患-给力心理
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孤独让孩子埋下“多重人格”隐患

孤独让孩子埋下“多重人格”隐患
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发表时间:2015-02-06 14:46:48 216 0 0

明明是个七尺男儿,有时却表现地像个八岁儿童,有时又像腼腆的女孩。很多只在欧美电影书籍中看到的“多重人格”在中国也有一定患病率,只是过去国内从未把这一病症单独分类。记者昨天从上海市精神卫生中心获悉,该院一份关于中国地区分离性障碍研究的报告被国际专业期刊Journal ofTrauma andDissociation评为2010年度最佳论著。作为中国地区首次系统性研究“多重人格”的报告,专家发现,童年期的性虐待、父母长期争吵、忽略陪伴关爱孩子等创伤,容易埋下成年后“多重人格”的隐患。

  单亲男孩有三个分身

  27岁的Jack(化名)起初因精神分裂症被送到上海市精神卫生中心治病。但医生发现,他的很多“精分”症状并不典型,倒是更像另一种在中国很少被人关注的心理疾病:多重人格。

  5岁那年,父母离异的Jack跟着爸爸住在爷爷奶奶家。之后再也没有见过妈妈的Jack对母亲没什么印象,性格粗暴的父亲酗酒,对儿子时好时坏。7 岁时,疼爱Jack的爷爷因病过世,那以后,Jack变得越来越孤僻。中专毕业后,由于总搞不好人际关系,最后失业在家。内心孤独的他情绪日渐多变,最后竟然出现自杀和伤人行为,家人不得不把他送到市精卫中心。

  在医生引导下,Jack说出了心里话。原来缺乏安全感和爱的他从小在心里想象有一个玩伴小东,小东能理解自己,陪自己玩;后来心里面又多“住进”了一个人,中学的一位女老师,总像妈妈一样关心自己。最后,Jack怯怯地告诉医生,有时候有一个小学时曾欺负过他的男生也会出现在心里,发脾气,要打人砸东西。平时,Jack像普通人一样举止正常,但当这几种“分身”控制他时,他一会变成了小东,一会变成了老师,一会又变成了霸道的同学。

  上海市精神卫生中心前院长肖泽萍、医生俞峻瀚进行了《住院精神障碍患者中分离性障碍的初步研究》,而Jack正是他们研究中非常典型的多重人格患者。

  三大因素造成多重人格

  俞峻瀚医生告诉记者,多重人格是分离性障碍中比较典型的一种。可以理解为一个人在某一时刻完全表现为另一个人的身份、感觉、记忆、行为,也就是一副躯体里,可以在不同情形下有一个甚至多个分身。

  但在中国,以前根本没有“多重人格”这个病种。肖泽萍教授和俞峻瀚医生等对2005年到2006年上海精神卫生中心总部以及分部的所有住院部患者进行筛查,对符合入组标准的569名患者调查后发现,临床诊断为分离性障碍的患者共计28名,占4.92%。通过访谈调查和分析,研究人员发现三个具有显著性意义的风险因子:童年期性虐待经历、目前有情感性精神障碍和曾有过重度抑郁发作。而性别、婚姻状况、职业和受教育程度等都和“多重人格”患病率没有太大关系。

  孤独埋下情感地雷

  除以上三大高危因素外,躯体虐待、情感或言语上的虐待,被照料者所忽视、家庭成员的分离或丧失等也可能成为隐患。值得关注的是,一些父母情感破裂仍然选择维持婚姻,但经常发生争吵、冲突的家庭,对孩子是一种长期而慢性的精神折磨,往往会让孩子成为双方斗争的工具或牺牲品。此外,父母长期忙于工作而疏忽陪伴孩子,同样可能造成孩子孤独痛苦而埋下“情感地雷”。

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