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失眠与心理-给力心理
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失眠与心理

失眠与心理
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发表时间:2015-03-05 09:46:49 167 0 0

据统计,目前我国睡眠障碍患者约有3亿,睡眠不良者竟高达5亿人。被称为“失眠专家”的李舜伟教授指出,在失眠人群中,有80%左右的失眠与心理、精神有关。睡前喝牛奶、热水泡脚等固然能辅助人体更好的进入睡眠状态,但如果失眠是由心理、精神压力过大造成的,排除压力,解决心理上的失眠负担,才是正道。
    那么,可以导致人们失眠的心理因素有哪些呢?目前,心理学界公认的有六种:
    一、怕失眠心理
    有些人经常无精打采地抱怨说:“哎,昨天晚上又没有睡好觉,今天一点精神都没有!”到了晚上,他们总是想方设法地让自己“今晚什么都不想,一定要睡个好觉”。但结果事与愿违,越想睡好觉,越睡不着,越睡不着,就越担心自己不能入睡,如此形成恶性循环,导致失眠。
    二、梦有害心理
    不少自称失眠的人,往往不能正确看待梦,总认为梦对人体有害,梦是睡眠不佳的表现,甚至有人误认为多梦就是失眠。这些错误观念往往使人焦虑,担心入睡后会做梦的“警戒”心理,往往影响睡眠质量。事实上,做梦是一种正常的现象,且是大脑的一种工作方式。做梦有助于增强人们的记忆,并把无用的信息清理掉。梦本身对人体并无害处,有害的是认为“做梦有害”的心理,使自己产生心理负担,由此诱发失眠。
    三、自责心理
    有些人对自己的行为过失感到内疚自责,在脑子里总是重演过失事件,并懊悔自己当初没有妥善处理。白天由于事情多,自责懊悔情绪稍轻,到夜晚则“徘徊”在自责、懊悔的幻想与兴奋中,故辗转难眠。
    四、期待心理
    有些人在期待某人或做某事,或担心睡过头会误事的情况下,常出现早醒。比如一位“三班倒”的网站管理员,由于在夜里12点上班,经常晚7点睡觉,但害怕迟到的心理,他睡得很不踏实,常常只能睡上1~2小时,就被惊醒,久之便成了早醒患者。另外,有些人在考试、晋升、职称评定等重大事情前,往往也容易处于期待兴奋状态,难以入睡。
    五、手足无措心理
    研究表明,75%的失眠症患者在他们失眠刚开始前经历过一次或多次应激性事件,这些事件中最常见的是人际关系问题、情感心理问题、信任危机、缺乏社会理解和支持等。有的人受到突发事件刺激后,不能做出正确的反应,手足无措,不知如何是好,以致晚上睡觉时也瞻前顾后、左思右想,但始终处于进退维谷、举棋不定的焦急兴奋状态,不得安眠。
    六、童年创伤心理的再现
    有的人由于童年时受到丧失父母、恐吓、重罚等创伤而感到害怕,出现了怕黑夜不能入睡的现象,随着年龄增长逐渐好转。但成年期后,一旦受到某种类似儿童时期的创伤性刺激,就会使被压抑在潜意识的童年创伤性心理反应再现,重演童年时期的失眠现象。
    具体特征包括:敏感、多疑、自信心不足、固执、犹豫不决、完美主义、担心焦虑;有些人甚至对偶尔几次不眠造成的头痛、注意力涣散、记忆力下降等症状,也总是感到忧心忡忡;对自己的工作、生活缺乏自信,抗精神压力的能力不足,遇到挫折时总习惯于自责或压抑。在对待失眠问题上,这些人过分关注失眠的感觉和对身体的影响,过分关注周围的环境。
    当我们了解了诱发失眠的心理因素,只要及时发现和解决这些心理因素,假以时日,心因性失眠患者就一定能跳出这个怪圈,甚至能起到立竿见影的效果。

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