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王登峰、张伯源提出的心理健康标准-给力心理
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王登峰、张伯源提出的心理健康标准

王登峰、张伯源提出的心理健康标准
个人原创

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发表时间:2015-06-17 09:34:29 298 0 0

1.了解自我、悦纳自我

一个心理健康的人能体验到自己的存在价值,既能了解自己,又能接受自己,有自知之明,对自己的能力、性格和长短处都能作出恰当的、客观的评价;对自己不会提出苛刻的、非分的期望与要求;对自己的生活目标和理想也能定得切合实际,因而对自己总是满意的;努力发展自身的潜能,即使对自己无法补救的缺陷,也能泰然处之。一个心理不健康的人则缺乏自知之明,并且总是对自己不满意;由于所定的目标和理想不切实际,主观和客观的距离相差太远而总是自责、自怨、自卑;由于总是要求自己十全十美,而自己却又总是无法做到完美无缺,于是总跟自己过不去,结果心理状态永远无法平衡,无法摆脱自己感到将要面临的心理危机。

2.接受他人,善与人处

心理健康的人乐于与人交往,不仅能接受自我,也能接受他人,悦纳他人。能认可别人存在的重要性和作用,同时也能为他人和集体所理解、所接受,能与他人相互沟通和交往,人际关系协调和谐;在生活的集体中能融为一体,既能与挚友相聚时共享欢乐,也能在独处沉思时无孤独感;在与人相处时,积极的态度(如同情、友善、信任、尊敬等)总是多于消极的态度(如猜疑、嫉妒、畏惧、敌视等),因而在社会生活中有较强的适应能力和较充足的安全感。而心理不健康的人可能常常置身于集体之外,与周围的人格格不入。

3.正视现实,接受现实

心理健康的人能够面对现实,接受现实,能动地适应现实,进一步改造现实,而不是逃避现实;对周围事物和环境能作出客观的认识和评价,并能与现实环境保持良好的接触;既有高于现实的理想,又不会沉湎于不切实际的幻想与奢望;对自己的力量有充分的信心,对生活、学习和工作中的各种困难和挑战都能妥善处理。心理不健康的人往往以幻想代替现实,而不敢面对现实,没有足够的勇气去接受现实的挑战;总是抱怨自己“生不逢时”或责备社会环境对自己不公而怨天尤人,因而无法适应现实环境。

4.热爱生活,乐于工作

心理健康的人能珍惜和热爱生活,积极投身于生活,并在生活中尽情享受人生的乐趣,而不会认为生活是重负;他们在工作中尽可能地发挥自己的个性和聪明才智,并从工作成果中获得满足和激励,把工作看作是乐趣而不是负担;他们能把工作中积累的各种有用的信息、知识和技能存储起来,随时提取使用,以解决可能遇到的新问题,使自己的工作行为更有效。

5.能协调与控制情绪,心境良好

心理健康的人愉快、乐观、开朗、满意等积极情绪总是占优势,当然也会有悲、忧、愁、怒等消极情绪体验,但一般不会长久;他们能适度地表达和控制自己的情绪,喜不狂、忧不伤、胜不骄、败不馁,谦而不卑,自尊自重,既不妄自尊大,也不退缩畏惧;对于无法得到的东西不过分追求,争取在社会允许范围内满足自己的各种需要;对于自己所能得到的一切都感到满意。

6.人格完整和谐

心理健康的人,气质、能力、性格和理想、信念、动机、兴趣、人生观等各方面平衡发展,人格作为人的整体的精神面貌能够完整、协调、和谐地表现出来;他们思考问题的方式是适中和合理的,待人接物能采取恰当灵活的态度,对外界刺激不会有偏颇的情绪和行为反应;他们能够与社会的步调合拍,也能和集体融为一体。

7.智力正常,智商在80分以上

智力正常是人们正常生活工作和学习的基本心理条件,是心理健康的重要标准。一般智商低于70分者为智力落后,而智力落后是很难称为心理健康的。

8.心理行为符合年龄特征

在人的生命发展的不同年龄阶段,都有相对应的心理行为表现,从而形成不同年龄阶段独特的心理行为模式。心理健康的人应具有同年龄多数人所符合的心理行为特征。如果一个人的心理行为经常严重偏离自己的年龄特征,一般是心理不健康的表现。

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长程个案

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