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将“积极心理学”引入思政教育-给力心理
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将“积极心理学”引入思政教育

将“积极心理学”引入思政教育
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发表时间:2015-05-11 10:03:39 179 0 0

积极心理学理论发轫于上世纪末反思传统心理学的一场世界性变革,它从关注人类的心理疾病转向关注人类的善良本性,其目的在于帮助普通人如何体验快乐、创造幸福并以积极的心态面对人生,这也揭示了心理学的核心本质——使一切生命过得更有意义。

    思想政治教育是当前我国高校教育工作的重点,转型时期我国社会所出现的复杂问题,致使高校学生产生理想信念模糊、价值取向扭曲、社会责任感缺乏、心理素质欠佳等诸多现象,传统思政教育中的单调、被动、模式化的教育内容和方法已无法应对客观环境变化所带来的挑战。我们认为,积极心理学注重挖掘人自身的积极因素、激发个人的潜能,最终达到个人的幸福,这一理念正契合了思政教育的终极目标,即人的自由而全面的发展。因此,将积极心理学引入高校思政教育,通过积极的、健康的引导与干预,增强思政教育的感染力和吸引力,震撼受教者的心灵,从而引起情感上的共鸣,使高校学生形成积极人格,提高思想政治教育的实效性,对高校思政教育具有重要意义。

    那么,如何把积极心理学引入高校的思政教育呢?

    积极情绪及其体验是积极心理学研究的核心问题,即:人要满意地对待过去、幸福地感受现在和乐观地面对将来。在思政教育过程中,积极的情绪情感体验对个体的知、情、意、行等各方面的发展都有着调节作用。如果学生保持愉快、乐观、开朗、满意等积极情绪,也就会具有较强的自我调节能力,那么接受教育的积极性、主动性就会提升,并会在实践过程中以积极的心态去面对挫折、困难和挑战。高校思政工作者应有意识地训练学生在受教过程中积极情绪的体验能力,提升学生有关过去思政教育过程中获得的积极情感,增强学生自觉学习动力和加深对思政教育意义的理解,同时,还应提高学生感悟能力,促使学生人生感悟和积极情绪体验相互促进。

    积极心理学认为,人在客观上都有积极的心理元素,而这些善良、美好的人性品质在每个人的心灵深处,尚待开发。这些积极的心理元素可以被激活,并指导人的行为,即每一个人都有积极的心理潜能,都有自我向上的成长能力。当前在高校思政教育工作中,当受教育者身上存在严重的不良品行时,我们往往采用的是比较简单、直接批评为主的教育方式,效果十分不理想。作为高校思政教育工作者,在实践中运用积极心理学理论,可以对受教育者存有足够的爱心、耐心和毅力,特别是要以发展的眼光、积极的态度,相信他们有改善自我的积极愿望和潜在的正能量,采用理解、接纳、赞扬等更加人性化的工作方式。同时要善于引导大学生发现自身所具有的积极态度、超越自我的自信心和效能感,帮助他们培养自我积极的意志品质,增强他们的心理抗压能力,提高他们的情商。另外,高校思政教育工作者还应关注受教者的自我决定感,以提升他们学习过程中的成就感、满意感,促使他们克服由于担心、羞涩、恐惧等情绪所带来的自我障碍,从而达到培养受教者以乐观的态度看待一切,从积极的方面看待现实社会存在的困难和问题这一目的。

    积极心理学主张积极组织系统的营造,并认为人及其经验是在社会大环境中得以体现的,环境也同时反作用于人。当社会大环境优异时,人的心理健康、人际关系等一切积极的因素能够实现相互促进。这就要求思政教育工作者要构建一个良好的、积极的校园文化环境,并注重精神文化环境对学生形成积极人格特质的重要作用,同时在实践过程中,还应打破教育主体与客体的对立关系,实现双方平等对话,如在教学中利用新媒体采取合作学习等方式,实现教育主客体积极的互动关系,其目的在于使受教者产生合作意识、产生帮助他人的倾向,从而获得更多的学习乐趣。另外,思想政治教育工作者还应给予受教者尊重和爱心,待之以真诚和平等,创设良好的心理氛围。总之,作为高校思政教育工作者应明确怎样构建有利的适宜条件,以增强学生接受思想政治教育的积极性和主动性。

作者:高宇轩张向葵

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