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《丘吉尔的黑狗》:驯服内心的忧郁 -给力心理
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《丘吉尔的黑狗》:驯服内心的忧郁

《丘吉尔的黑狗》:驯服内心的忧郁
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发表时间:2015-03-17 09:44:49 194 0 0

我们都知道,英国前首相丘吉尔是“二战英雄”,杰出的政治家,凭借着坚定的信念和卓越的领导才能拯救了战争危机中的英国;此外,他还是大文豪,著有《英语民族史》《第二次世界大战回忆》等,获得1953年贝尔文学奖。

 

但是,鲜少有人知道,丘吉尔一生饱受忧郁症折磨。丘吉尔曾经说过:“心中的忧郁就像黑狗,一有机会就紧咬着我不放。”英国首屈一指的精神科医生、作家安东尼·斯托尔借用了丘吉尔的这句名言,写作了《丘吉尔的黑狗:忧郁症及人类心灵的其他现象》(邓伯宸译,北京大学出版社)一书。

 

在斯托尔看来,丘吉尔成就的取得,和他罹患的忧郁症很有关系。“我们看到的是这样一个人,相当程度上,他总是在强迫自己跟自己内在的本质作对。”忧郁症患者拒绝让自己休息、放松,他们把无限的精力投入到工作之中;最吊诡的是,丘吉尔的执著和“一厢情愿”,恰恰是战时英国需要的精神,“正因为他终其一生都在跟自己的绝望战斗,只有他才能够告诉别人,绝望是可以战胜的。”

 

斯托尔对丘吉尔的研究是本书的切入口,在随后几章,我们还会遇到很多名人:卡夫卡、牛顿、斯诺、戈尔丁……虽然他们性情迥异,各领风骚的领域也大不相同,但从相关的文献中却不难看出,他们全都是忧郁症患者。在他们的大半生里面,要不是那种天赋的创造才能,他们可能早已崩溃了。斯托尔深受荣格、弗洛伊德精神分析学说的影响,在本书的后半部分,我们可以看到斯托尔结合荣格、弗洛伊德学说的精彩阐述,以及进一步的拓展和扬弃。

 

这可能容易让我们得出“天才=忧郁症”的看法。但斯托尔也没有这么简单认为。斯托尔只是肯定了“对某些人来说,忧郁症就有如一条鞭子”。斯托尔认为,之所以呈现出名人普遍具有忧郁症特征的现象,是因为名人的研究资料保存较为完整,更方便作为研究对象,因此斯托尔的关注点虽然也放在名人身上,但他的研究结果具有普遍适用效应。

 

第十二章,斯托尔明确地说:“真正的天才不是疯子。”他用陀思妥耶夫斯基、尼采和莫泊桑等大量实例来证明,心理失常会严重影响人们的创造力。可以想象,敏感、脆弱、异样、病态的神经或许会让这些作家、艺术家、科学家们体验了常人不曾体会的感受,甚至进入了无法想象的奇幻的精神世界,这些经验可能会激发无与伦比的灵感;可是,疾病带来的终归是痛苦,当一个人身心俱疲、甚至身陷病榻时,是很难再有更好的成就的。

 

丘吉尔虽然出身马尔波罗公爵之家,可是父亲热衷于政治,母亲喜欢社交应酬,往往好几个月难得见上一面,他的童年是孤寂的。斯托尔认为,由于父母的冷落与疏忽,丘吉尔内在的自信资源遭到了剥夺,这造就了他一生的忧郁性格。这个问题的确引人深思:童年环境的影响到底有多大?

 

在第六章“成人发展面面观”,斯托尔给出了另一个有意义的研究。斯托尔认为,中年危机的核心问题是“建设和停滞”。中年时,常常创造力枯竭,在压力下容易失控,是潜藏的忧郁症的高发阶段。斯托尔援引雅克的研究,用“建设性顺从”一词,充分表述了中年心态的变化。成熟和理智的观照,可以将人导向宁静。在这个快节奏速度奔跑、令人不安的世界里,这或许也是我们用来安抚内心、平静燥郁的最好的良方。

 

“抑郁症离我很近,近得像亲兄弟。”这是著名主持人崔永元受抑郁症折磨时说过的一句话。这句话和“丘吉尔的黑狗”其实殊途同归,都说明了忧郁症离我们的生活如此之近。对于这条黑狗,我们不需要惧怕它,而是要学会驯服它。

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