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催眠与心理治疗之二:帕拉蒂斯个案-给力心理
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催眠与心理治疗之二:帕拉蒂斯个案

催眠与心理治疗之二:帕拉蒂斯个案
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发表时间:2015-02-10 12:47:58 210 0 0

若是西方的心理分析真的可以从麦斯麦算起,那么,我们可以把帕拉蒂斯作为接受麦斯麦术治疗的代表性病人。因为那些成批成批地在“麦斯麦磁桶”获得治疗的病人,可以说是麦斯麦术的受益者,而帕拉蒂斯所接受的治疗,却接近于催眠术与心理治疗。

 

玛丽亚·特蕾西娅·帕拉蒂斯4岁由于视神经麻痹使她成了无法医治的失明者,但这使她在钢琴演奏方面表现出了非凡的才华,她在维也纳家喻户晓,莫扎特也曾出席她的演奏会。奥地利女皇亲自担任她的教母,每年给她提供200金币的资助,以及其他一些学习的费用。

 

在帕拉蒂斯接受麦斯麦治疗之前,维也纳第一流的眼科医生,被称做光明使者的 巴尔特教授和宫廷医生施托尔克,都曾对她进行过多年的系统治疗,但均毫无结果。于是,1776年,18岁的帕拉蒂斯被带到麦斯麦的住所,维也纳田园街261号,接受麦斯麦新方法的治疗。

 

实际上,帕拉蒂斯的病症就是一个典型的精神病症。她经常出现眼眶内的痉挛性抽搐,引起脾脏和肝脏的疼痛,近似于一种神经错乱性的发作。于是,帕拉蒂斯小姐失明的真正原因,并非是因为视神经的损伤,而是由于心理创伤产生的神经功能紊乱。于是,麦斯麦认为,他可以医治帕拉蒂斯小姐的病。

 

帕拉蒂斯的父亲曾经亲自撰写了有关帕拉蒂斯治疗效果的报告。在茨威格的《麦斯麦传记》中,我们可以看到这样的描述:

 

帕拉蒂斯在接受麦斯麦治疗不久,就开始能够辨别出现在自己面前的物体和人体的轮廓了……她看见的第一个人正是麦斯麦医生。她全神贯注地注视着他……她觉得,长在人脸上的鼻子十分猥亵滑稽,禁不住放声大笑起来。她曾描述说,那些鼻子带有威胁地冲向她,似乎是要把她的眼睛挖出来一样。

 

……在看到黑色时,帕拉蒂斯曾解释说,这就是她从前失明的颜色。这种黑色总是一再引起她某种忧伤的倾向,在治疗过程中她经常沉湎于这样的忧伤中,有时会突然陷入形形色色的痛哭流涕之中……但发作过去之后,她又很快就恢复了以往讨人喜欢和活泼开朗的天性……

当人们兴高采烈地传送着这种治疗的奇迹时,不断有显赫达贵前来探望,这给帕拉蒂斯带来了了新的忧郁。她在闷闷不乐中常这样问自己的父亲,我现在为什么不如从前快乐了呢?她也常常叹息:若是由于能够看到的东西会引发出这诸多的烦恼,那么她宁愿保持她失明的平静。不难看出,这是何等强烈的“移情”的出现与表达。因为她知道,治愈后的她,就意味着要与她的医生麦斯麦分离。

 

当外界的压力逐渐升级,敌视麦斯麦的各界人士群起而攻之的时候,帕拉蒂斯也就成了争论的焦点。反对麦斯麦的人不但是绝不承认麦斯麦对于帕拉蒂斯的任何治疗效果,而且还要把帕拉蒂斯从麦斯麦那里抢走。他们说服了帕拉蒂斯的父亲。这位带着愤怒的父亲,用武力砸开了麦斯麦家的大门,要求麦斯麦立即还回他的女儿,并以拔出的剑相威胁。

 

但是,不是麦斯麦拒绝交回帕拉蒂斯,而是帕拉蒂斯自己根本不愿意离开,甚至是要以死表示决心。茨威格曾这样来记录这非同寻常的时刻:“不知道是神的关系还是性的关系,使她与这位治疗大师联结在了一起。帕拉蒂斯小姐顽固地宣布说,她不回到父母身边,而是想留在梅斯默尔(麦斯麦)那儿……不管是怎样的命令,恐吓还是殴打,都无法令坚强的帕拉蒂斯小姐心动,离开她的治疗医生,或许也是情人。”

 

但是,在当时的医学院、女皇、大主教以及道德委员会等等强大的压力下,麦斯麦为他先行的心理治疗付出了极为沉重的代价,他不得不离开维也纳,从此开始了他俄底浦斯的流浪。孤军奋战中的麦斯麦失败了。但这不是他个人的失败,而是心理学的失败;帕拉蒂斯失去了重见光明的机会,整个世界也要为此等待。直到125年以后,西格蒙特·弗洛伊德与他的精神分析再度重现在维也纳。

 

(申荷永著:《心理分析:理解与体验》,(北京)三联书店2004)

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