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学习障碍儿童治疗案例-给力心理
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学习障碍儿童治疗案例

学习障碍儿童治疗案例
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发表时间:2015-02-06 16:23:45 303 0 0

小强是由上大学的表姐带来咨询的,他表姐的同学曾在我的咨询中心咨询过,听了同学的介绍,表姐把她也带来咨询了。

    小强14岁了,上初中二年级,初一时学习还可以,只是感觉到有些吃力,初一下学期开始,经常在课堂上出怪声,接老师的话,做小动作,东张西望。父母认为他是“多动症”,到医院检查后,服药4个月,没有效果后停药。学习成绩却直线下降,现在是全年级的最后一名。小强的父亲是当地有名的商人,有好几处生意,平时很少回家,但只要一回家,就给小强带来大量吃的、穿的、玩的,小强物质上的要求,父亲从来是毫不含糊地予以满足,而对于小强的学习和其他问题,父亲基本不过问。小学毕业时,父亲回家听说小强成绩不好,一怒之下,把小强痛打一顿----“差点把腿打断”,打过后,父亲又生悔意,给小强很多零花钱作为补偿。小强的母亲是家庭妇女,每天开车接送小强上下学,由于小强是二胎(有一个姐姐),家里一直希望把唯一的儿子培养出来,将来经营家族的大产业。母亲几乎把全部精力和爱心都倾注到小强身上,上初中更是托关系进入当地最好的一所中学,但没想到,小强这么不争气,学习实在吃力,而且屡屡违反课堂纪律,老师多次请家长。母亲觉得很没面子,回来就训斥小强,母子二人竟由争吵到动手厮打起来,从二楼打到一楼,小强妈妈的腰也摔伤了,母子二人从此形同路人,互不理睬。小强表姐说,他们母子已经有三个多月互不说话了。通过图画分析和与小强交流了解到:小强自己也想把学习搞上去,无奈自己的基础太差,怎么学也赶不上别的同学,这个学校又是全市重点,学生间的竞争很激烈,对学习差、纪律松散的学生,同学包括老师都排斥,老师找小强谈话时就曾建议小强转学。有的同学背后说小强是“弱智”,还有的同学到老师处告状,认为小强上课影响了他们学习。小强自己也认为,管住自己并且把学习搞好“比登天还难”。比如上课时,小强总想认真听讲,但不知怎的,就开始说话做小动作,控制不住自己。每天回家都下决心,刻苦学习提高成绩,但就是上课听不懂,作业总出错,现在是同学不愿和小强玩,母亲和小强不说话,小强自己懊恼生气,也不写作业,混一天算一天。

     通过掌握的资料,我感到小强的心理问题是由两个方面造成的。

一、小强成长中基本的需要没有得到满足,造成巨大的心理缺失感,导致小强“人格破产”,出现报复性行为。

     从亲情需要来看,父亲虽然满足了小强物质上的所有需求,但由于长年在外,偶尔回来也没有与小强有过感情深层次的交流,导致父爱的缺失。小强母亲虽然对儿子百般呵护,但方法简单,常走极端,一旦孩子无法实现家长的学习期望时,由爱生厌,由厌生恨,因此,略显畸形的母爱最终也对小强构成了伤害。

     从归属需要看,小强所在的环境,学生素质高,全市的尖子生都集结在这里,对学习差,行为不良的小强产生排斥,加上老师的多次批评和下“逐客令”,也加剧了同学对小强的疏远。小强似乎游离于集体之外了,归属的需要自然无法满足。

    从获得承认、获取尊重的需要看,小强虽然学习基础差,成绩不好,但人格发展健全,内心里有表现自我获得他人认同的愿望,但在学校,小强几乎被全盘否定,在人格上没有获得应有的尊重,为此,他以上课的异常表现引起他人的注意,其心理学意义是:你们要尊重我,我需要你们的重视。

从成就需要看,父母对小强的期望和要求偏高,缺乏学习兴趣和方法的小强力不能及,因此,从小学到初中,长期没有成就体验,这导致小强自我评价低下,自信心丧失。

以上四个方面的需要满足是人格结构的基本框架,处在心理发展可塑期的小强,在还没有来得及构建自己的人格框架时,就遭到来自学校、家庭力量的冲击,于是自暴自弃。心里想法是---你们不让我有社会的“自我”,我就破罐子破摔,打碎“人格”上的自我——这是典型的“人格破产”行为。

二、 小强自我支持系统中的自信心丧失,造成心理失衡,导致行为反应的偏差。

我们每一个人都有一个相对独立的自我支持系统,这一系统和自我意识中的自我评价、自我接纳有关系。即一个人自我评价客观且较高的话,自我接纳的程度就高,自我支持系统就相对稳定,就能为人的行为系统提供有效和持续的能量,反之,像小强这样,长期处于超低的自我评价中,长期自我否定,心理严重失衡,自我支持系统因为自信心的丧失而紊乱,无法给行为系统提供动能,于是就出现了厌学、违纪等偏差的行为反应,一开始,小强也曾努力过,但每一次均以失败而告终,最终形成恶性循环,导致小强无法自控。

针对小强的情况,我制定的咨询目标是,帮助小强建立客观的自我认知系统,提高对环境的适应能力和学习动能,逐步恢复学习信心。

 

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本文作者

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公益助人

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长程个案

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续单率

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咨询时
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